Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Early activation of immune response could lead to better vaccines

Date:
August 30, 2012
Source:
Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University
Summary:
Researchers have discovered a new “first response” mechanism that the immune system uses to respond to infection. The findings challenge the current understanding of immunity and could lead to new strategies for boosting effectiveness of all vaccines.

Researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University have discovered a new "first response" mechanism that the immune system uses to respond to infection. The findings challenge the current understanding of immunity and could lead to new strategies for boosting effectiveness of all vaccines. The study, conducted in mice, published online August 30 in the journal Immunity.

Related Articles


Grégoire Lauvau, Ph.D.One way the immune system protects the body against microbes like bacteria and viruses is with memory CD8+ T cells, so named because they can "remember" the invading organisms. If someone is later infected by that same microbe, memory CD8+ T cells recognize the invaders and multiply rapidly, forming an army of cytotoxic T cells to hunt down and destroy the microbes and the cells they've infected. This highly specific immune response forms the basis for most vaccines -- but it can take several weeks for them to prime the immune system to respond to "real" infections.

This new study shows that the immune system has another, faster method for responding to infections that could be exploited to produce faster-acting vaccines.

"Our research has revealed that pathogen-specific memory CD8+ T cells are reactivated even before they recognize the antigen they previously encountered," said study leader Grégoire Lauvau, Ph.D., associate professor of microbiology and immunology at Einstein. (Antigens are protein fragments of microbes that trigger an immune response.)

Dr. Lauvau and his colleagues found that this fast-acting immune response is orchestrated by a type of white cell called inflammatory monocytes. After the immune system detects an infection, it recruits monocytes to the affected tissues, where they release inflammatory signals called cytokines. Those inflammatory signals not only activate every memory CD8+ T cell that has previously encountered a pathogen but also stimulate the activation of natural killer cells, another type of white blood cell.

The result is a protective immunologic environment capable of defending against microbes of any kind -- viruses, bacteria or parasites. Only later do memory CD8+ T cells specific for that microbe's antigen begin to multiply, enabling the immune system to launch its focused attack on that particular microbe.

"We're not saying that recognizing the antigen is unimportant in the immune response," says Dr. Lauvau. "You do need the antigen later on, to cause memory CD8+ T cells to multiply and to get full pathogen-specific protection. But it doesn't seem to be needed during the days immediately following re-infection, when this early form of immunity is operating."

"It's too early to apply these findings clinically," said Dr. Lauvau. "For example, we still need to identify all of the cells and signaling molecules that are involved, and learn how and when the immune system switches from the first phase of protection to the second phase, where you have the antigen. But the important concept to take from this study is that it may be possible to improve vaccines by making this early, generalized immune response persist for a longer time until the later, targeted immune response kicks in."

The lead author of the paper, titled "Inflammatory monocytes activate memory CD8+ T and innate NK lymphocytes independent of cognate antigen during microbial pathogen invasion" is Saïdi M'Homa Soudja, Ph.D., a postdoc in Dr. Lauvau's lab. Other contributors are Anne Ruiz, M.Sc., and Julien Marie, Ph.D., at INSERM and Université de Lyon, Lyon, France.

The study was largely supported by grants from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (AI095835), part of the National Institutes of Health, and Einstein funds.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Saïdi M'Homa Soudja, Anne L. Ruiz, Julien C. Marie, Grégoire Lauvau. Inflammatory Monocytes Activate Memory CD8 T and Innate NK Lymphocytes Independent of Cognate Antigen during Microbial Pathogen Invasion. Immunity, 2012; DOI: 10.1016/j.immuni.2012.05.029

Cite This Page:

Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University. "Early activation of immune response could lead to better vaccines." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 30 August 2012. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/08/120830135149.htm>.
Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University. (2012, August 30). Early activation of immune response could lead to better vaccines. ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 19, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/08/120830135149.htm
Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University. "Early activation of immune response could lead to better vaccines." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/08/120830135149.htm (accessed December 19, 2014).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Health & Medicine News

Friday, December 19, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

The Best Tips to Curb Holiday Carbs

The Best Tips to Curb Holiday Carbs

Buzz60 (Dec. 19, 2014) — It's hard to resist those delicious but fattening carbs we all crave during the winter months, but there are some ways to stay satisfied without consuming the extra calories. Vanessa Freeman (@VanessaFreeTV) has the details. Video provided by Buzz60
Powered by NewsLook.com
Sierra Leone Bikers Spread the Message to Fight Ebola

Sierra Leone Bikers Spread the Message to Fight Ebola

AFP (Dec. 19, 2014) — More than 100 motorcyclists hit the road to spread awareness messages about Ebola. Nearly 7,000 people have now died from the virus, almost all of them in west Africa, according to the World Health Organization. Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Researchers Test Colombian Village With High Alzheimer's Rates

Researchers Test Colombian Village With High Alzheimer's Rates

AFP (Dec. 19, 2014) — In Yarumal, a village in N. Colombia, Alzheimer's has ravaged a disproportionately large number of families. A genetic "curse" that may pave the way for research on how to treat the disease that claims a new victim every four seconds. Duration: 02:42 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Double-Amputee Becomes First To Move Two Prosthetic Arms With His Mind

Double-Amputee Becomes First To Move Two Prosthetic Arms With His Mind

Buzz60 (Dec. 19, 2014) — A double-amputee makes history by becoming the first person to wear and operate two prosthetic arms using only his mind. Jen Markham has the story. Video provided by Buzz60
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories

 

Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins