Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Vaccine blackjack: IL-21 critical to fight against viral infections

Date:
May 23, 2013
Source:
Emory Health Sciences
Summary:
Scientists have shown that an immune regulatory molecule called IL-21 is needed for long-lasting antibody responses in mice against viral infections.

Scientists at Emory Vaccine Center have shown that an immune regulatory molecule called IL-21 is needed for long-lasting antibody responses in mice against viral infections.

The results are published in the Journal of Virology.

"Our findings highlight how IL-21 could be important in the development of antiviral vaccines," says research associate Ata Ur Rasheed Mohammed, PhD, the first author of the paper. The senior author is Rafi Ahmed, PhD, director of the Emory Vaccine Center and a Georgia Research Alliance Eminent Scholar.

The findings could lead scientists designing future vaccines to incorporate IL-21 directly or to use the ability to stimulate IL-21 as a gauge of vaccine activity. IL-21 was discovered in 2000. Its effects have also been studied in the area of immune responses against HIV, and it has been in clinical trials for skin cancer and kidney cancer and auto-immune disorders.

A main objective of vaccination is to make the recipient's immune system develop antibodies that can neutralize infecting viruses. Signals from IL-21 appear to be necessary for generating long-lived plasma cells, which reside in the bone marrow and secrete antibodies.

Rasheed and his colleagues probed mice that were unable to respond to IL-21, because the mice were engineered to lack the gene for the IL-21 receptor. They examined the altered mice in the context of three different types of viral infections: LCMV (lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus), VSV (vesicular stomatitis virus), and influenza.

When infected with each of the three viruses separately, the altered mice did start to produce antibodies, but antibody levels faded out over the course of around two months. The mice "exhibited a profound defect in generating long-lived plasma cells and in sustaining antibody levels over time," the authors write.

Rasheed's team demonstrated that IL-21 is playing a role in germinal centers, structures in the lymph nodes and spleen where cells that produce high-affinity antibodies are selected. In the IL-21 receptor deficient mice, germinal centers form but are not sustained. IL-21 signals are important both for the antibody-producing cells and for T helper cells that support them, the researchers showed.

The research was supported by the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (P01 AI097092-01A1 and RO1 A1030048) and the Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery (UM1AI100663).


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Emory Health Sciences. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Rasheed Mohammed et al. IL-21 is a critical cytokine for the generation of virus-specific long-lived plasma cells. Journal of Virology, 2013 DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00063-13 JVI.00063-13

Cite This Page:

Emory Health Sciences. "Vaccine blackjack: IL-21 critical to fight against viral infections." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 23 May 2013. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/05/130523162252.htm>.
Emory Health Sciences. (2013, May 23). Vaccine blackjack: IL-21 critical to fight against viral infections. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 2, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/05/130523162252.htm
Emory Health Sciences. "Vaccine blackjack: IL-21 critical to fight against viral infections." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/05/130523162252.htm (accessed September 2, 2014).

Share This




More Plants & Animals News

Tuesday, September 2, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

We've Got Mites Living In Our Faces And So Do You

We've Got Mites Living In Our Faces And So Do You

Newsy (Aug. 30, 2014) A new study suggests 100 percent of adult humans (those over 18 years of age) have Demodex mites living in their faces. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Washington Wildlife Center Goes Nuts Over Baby Squirrels

Washington Wildlife Center Goes Nuts Over Baby Squirrels

Reuters - US Online Video (Aug. 30, 2014) An animal rescue in Washington state receives an influx of orphaned squirrels, keeping workers busy as they nurse them back to health. Rough Cut (no reporter narration). Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Experimental Ebola Drug ZMapp Cures Lab Monkeys Of Disease

Experimental Ebola Drug ZMapp Cures Lab Monkeys Of Disease

Newsy (Aug. 29, 2014) In a new study, a promising experimental treatment for Ebola managed to cure a group of infected macaque monkeys. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Killer Amoeba Found in Louisiana Water System

Killer Amoeba Found in Louisiana Water System

AP (Aug. 28, 2014) State health officials say testing has confirmed the presence of a killer amoeba in a water system serving three St. John the Baptist Parish towns. (Aug. 28) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins