Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Vaccine blackjack: IL-21 critical to fight against viral infections

Date:
May 23, 2013
Source:
Emory Health Sciences
Summary:
Scientists have shown that an immune regulatory molecule called IL-21 is needed for long-lasting antibody responses in mice against viral infections.

Scientists at Emory Vaccine Center have shown that an immune regulatory molecule called IL-21 is needed for long-lasting antibody responses in mice against viral infections.

Related Articles


The results are published in the Journal of Virology.

"Our findings highlight how IL-21 could be important in the development of antiviral vaccines," says research associate Ata Ur Rasheed Mohammed, PhD, the first author of the paper. The senior author is Rafi Ahmed, PhD, director of the Emory Vaccine Center and a Georgia Research Alliance Eminent Scholar.

The findings could lead scientists designing future vaccines to incorporate IL-21 directly or to use the ability to stimulate IL-21 as a gauge of vaccine activity. IL-21 was discovered in 2000. Its effects have also been studied in the area of immune responses against HIV, and it has been in clinical trials for skin cancer and kidney cancer and auto-immune disorders.

A main objective of vaccination is to make the recipient's immune system develop antibodies that can neutralize infecting viruses. Signals from IL-21 appear to be necessary for generating long-lived plasma cells, which reside in the bone marrow and secrete antibodies.

Rasheed and his colleagues probed mice that were unable to respond to IL-21, because the mice were engineered to lack the gene for the IL-21 receptor. They examined the altered mice in the context of three different types of viral infections: LCMV (lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus), VSV (vesicular stomatitis virus), and influenza.

When infected with each of the three viruses separately, the altered mice did start to produce antibodies, but antibody levels faded out over the course of around two months. The mice "exhibited a profound defect in generating long-lived plasma cells and in sustaining antibody levels over time," the authors write.

Rasheed's team demonstrated that IL-21 is playing a role in germinal centers, structures in the lymph nodes and spleen where cells that produce high-affinity antibodies are selected. In the IL-21 receptor deficient mice, germinal centers form but are not sustained. IL-21 signals are important both for the antibody-producing cells and for T helper cells that support them, the researchers showed.

The research was supported by the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (P01 AI097092-01A1 and RO1 A1030048) and the Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery (UM1AI100663).


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Emory Health Sciences. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Rasheed Mohammed et al. IL-21 is a critical cytokine for the generation of virus-specific long-lived plasma cells. Journal of Virology, 2013 DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00063-13 JVI.00063-13

Cite This Page:

Emory Health Sciences. "Vaccine blackjack: IL-21 critical to fight against viral infections." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 23 May 2013. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/05/130523162252.htm>.
Emory Health Sciences. (2013, May 23). Vaccine blackjack: IL-21 critical to fight against viral infections. ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 29, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/05/130523162252.htm
Emory Health Sciences. "Vaccine blackjack: IL-21 critical to fight against viral infections." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/05/130523162252.htm (accessed November 29, 2014).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Plants & Animals News

Saturday, November 29, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Research on Bats Could Help Develop Drugs Against Ebola

Research on Bats Could Help Develop Drugs Against Ebola

AFP (Nov. 28, 2014) In Africa's only biosafety level 4 laboratory, scientists have been carrying out experiments on bats to understand how virus like Ebola are being transmitted, and how some of them resist to it. Duration: 01:18 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
New Dinosaur Species Found in Museum Collection

New Dinosaur Species Found in Museum Collection

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Nov. 27, 2014) A British palaeontologist has discovered a new species of dinosaur while studying fossils in a Canadian museum. Pentaceratops aquilonius was related to Triceratops and lived at the end of the Cretaceous Period, around 75 million years ago. Jim Drury has more. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Tryptophan Isn't Making You Sleepy On Thanksgiving

Tryptophan Isn't Making You Sleepy On Thanksgiving

Newsy (Nov. 27, 2014) Tryptophan, a chemical found naturally in turkey meat, gets blamed for sleepiness after Thanksgiving meals. But science points to other culprits. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Classic Hollywood Memorabilia Goes Under the Hammer

Classic Hollywood Memorabilia Goes Under the Hammer

Reuters - Entertainment Video Online (Nov. 26, 2014) The iconic piano from "Casablanca" and the Cowardly Lion suit from "The Wizard of Oz" fetch millions at auction. Sara Hemrajani reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Plants & Animals

Earth & Climate

Fossils & Ruins

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins