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Human antibody that neutralizes four different viruses and has potential to prevent and treat severe lower respiratory tract infections

Date:
August 20, 2013
Source:
Università della Svizzera italiana
Summary:
A new article describes a unique human monoclonal antibody (MPE8). Researchers are focusing on the discovery of next-generation human monoclonal antibodies to treat infectious and inflammatory diseases.

A publication in the scientific journal Nature describes a unique human monoclonal antibody (MPE8) discovered by the Swiss Biotech company Humabs BioMed SA in collaboration with the Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB) which is affiliated to the Università della Svizzera Italiana (USI). Humabs, a privately owned spin-off company of the IRB, is focusing on the discovery of next-generation human monoclonal antibodies to treat infectious and inflammatory diseases.

The study, which involved collaborators from the Policlinico San Matteo IRCCS, Pavia (IT) and the University of Lausanne (CH), was partially funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation and the European Research Council.

MPE8, a unique antibody that neutralizes different viruses

MPE8 is the first neutralizing antibody that targets four different human and animal viruses, in particular the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and the metapneumovirus (MPV) that cause severe lower respiratory tract infections. MPE8 represents a new promising drug for the prophylaxis as well as for the therapy of respiratory infections in infants and immunosuppressed patients. MPE8 also identifies a conserved structure shared by different viruses, which could lead to the development of a new vaccine capable of conferring protection against multiple viruses.

High medical need to treat patients infected by RSV and MPV viruses

RSV and MPV are a prominent cause of respiratory diseases ranging from common cold to severe infection of the lower respiratory tract and have been implicated in the development of asthma. RSV and MPV infections can be fatal in newborns and in immunosuppressed patients who have undergone stem cell or lung transplantation with a mortality up to 40%. A humanized antibody to RSV (Synagis) is currently used for prophylaxis in premature newborns, but is not effective therapeutically. There are no antibodies to prevent MPV infection. Furthermore, vaccines against RSV and MPV are not available. Given the high prevalence of these pathogens and the severity of the diseases caused, there is a strong medical need to develop novel therapies against these deadly viruses.

MPE8 antibody hits the "Achilles' heel" of the viruses

Davide Corti, Head of antibody discovery at Humabs BioMed and first author of the study comments: "This is a remarkable example of the power of the Humabs discovery platform to select, from the human immune response, antibodies with unique properties. Out of the several antibodies identified that neutralized either RSV or MPV, MPE8 was the only one that potently neutralized both viruses. Surprisingly, MPE8 is also active against two other paramyxoviruses of animal origin: bovine RSV and pneumonia virus of mice. Importantly we have been able to test MPE8 in a relevant animal model and found that the antibody has not only prophylactic but also therapeutic activity in a situation where ribavirin, the only antiviral drug available to treat with limited efficacy severe infections in humans, is ineffective. MPE8 antibody binds to the viral fusion protein in a site that is conserved among different viruses and represents a kind of "Achilles' heel" of these viruses. We hope to be able to use this information to develop a new vaccine capable of protecting against multiple viruses."

Antonio Lanzavecchia, director of the Institute for Research in Biomedicine; Professor of Human Immunology at the ETH Zurich, scientific founder of Humabs and senior author of the study comments: "After the isolation of an antibody that neutralizes all human and animal influenza viruses -- that we reported two years ago in the journal Science -- the identification of MPE8, which neutralizes 4 different paramixoviruses, is a further demonstration of the potential of the antibody discovery technologies that we developed 10 years ago. At that time nobody would have expected that antibodies with such potency and breadth of neutralization could exist. MPE8 is the first antibody that can neutralize viruses belonging to different species. Given its potency and breadth, we are confident that MPE8 represents a strong candidate for prophylaxis and therapy of these life threatening infections."


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Università della Svizzera italiana. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Davide Corti, Siro Bianchi, Fabrizia Vanzetta, Andrea Minola, Laurent Perez, Gloria Agatic, Barbara Guarino, Chiara Silacci, Jessica Marcandalli, Benjamin J. Marsland, Antonio Piralla, Elena Percivalle, Federica Sallusto, Fausto Baldanti, Antonio Lanzavecchia. Cross-neutralization of four paramyxoviruses by a human monoclonal antibody. Nature, 2013; DOI: 10.1038/nature12442

Cite This Page:

Università della Svizzera italiana. "Human antibody that neutralizes four different viruses and has potential to prevent and treat severe lower respiratory tract infections." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 20 August 2013. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/08/130820083651.htm>.
Università della Svizzera italiana. (2013, August 20). Human antibody that neutralizes four different viruses and has potential to prevent and treat severe lower respiratory tract infections. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 16, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/08/130820083651.htm
Università della Svizzera italiana. "Human antibody that neutralizes four different viruses and has potential to prevent and treat severe lower respiratory tract infections." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/08/130820083651.htm (accessed April 16, 2014).

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