Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Targets for melanoma immunotherapy identified

Date:
September 10, 2013
Source:
American Association for Cancer Research (AACR)
Summary:
Using a highly sensitive technology called NanoString, researchers have identified seven targets that could potentially be used to develop new immunotherapies for patients with metastatic melanoma.

In these clinical trials, the NCI researchers are treating patients with adoptive immunotherapy, a type of cancer treatment that involves “teaching” the immune cells of a patient to locate specific targets on tumor cells and kill those cells.
Credit: © Stιphane Bidouze / Fotolia

Using a highly sensitive technology called NanoString, researchers have identified seven targets that could potentially be used to develop new immunotherapies for patients with metastatic melanoma, according to a study published in Clinical Cancer Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.

Related Articles


"We identified seven potential candidate genes that deserve further consideration as targets for melanoma immunotherapy," said Richard Morgan, Ph.D., staff scientist at the Tumor Immunology Section of the Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute (NCI), in Bethesda, Md. "We used NanoString technology because it is very robust, yielding quantitative and extremely reproducible results and, in addition, an antigen expression profile can be constructed for a patient from a very small amount of tumor sample, which makes NanoString a better clinical tool."

NanoString technology allows for the simultaneous measurement of multiple genes that are expressed in higher amounts in tumor cells than in normal cells. Researchers isolate genetic material called RNA from tumor samples, use this technology to measure the amount of RNAs present in tumors, and compare them with those present in normal tissues. Unlike many other technologies that can be used for this purpose, NanoString can detect and measure the expression levels of the genes in a single step, avoiding errors.

"Our laboratory has developed a battery of different antigen receptors to target a wide range of antigens, and we can engineer human immune cells to recognize the targets in patients' tumors and kill those cells," said Morgan. "The NCI surgery branch is conducting several clinical trials using this technology to treat a variety of cancers."

In these clinical trials, the NCI researchers are treating patients with adoptive immunotherapy, a type of cancer treatment that involves "teaching" the immune cells of a patient to locate specific targets on tumor cells and kill those cells. Identification of the right targets present in a patient's tumor is, therefore, essential for immunotherapy to be successful.

Morgan and colleagues took metastatic melanoma samples from 59 patients, five established melanoma cell lines, and 31 normal tissue samples to profile the excessively expressed genes using NanoString. The researchers identified 67 genes that can be recognized by immune cells as targets on melanoma cells. They subsequently short-listed seven of these genes as ideal candidates because these genes fit the criteria: they were excessively expressed in melanoma tumors and were absent or at low levels in normal tissues, thus targeting them should cause no or minimal toxicity to nontarget organs.

Of these seven genes, five of them, CSAG2, IL13RA2, MAGEA3, MAGEC2, and PRAME, belong to a family called the cancer-testis genes, and the remaining two, CSPG4 and SOX10, are melanoma-related genes. Further investigation is needed before immune cells engineered to target these markers can be used in patients, according to Morgan.

"This is a good example of how newer technologies like NanoString arm cancer researchers and clinicians with the best gear to make tremendous advancements in cancer research and treatment," said Morgan. His team is currently using this technology to identify immunotherapy targets for pancreatic cancer.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by American Association for Cancer Research (AACR). Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. R. E. Beard, D. Abate-Daga, S. F. Rosati, Z. Zheng, J. R. Wunderlich, S. A. Rosenberg, R. A. Morgan. Gene Expression Profiling using Nanostring Digital RNA Counting to Identify Potential Target Antigens for Melanoma Immunotherapy. Clinical Cancer Research, 2013; 19 (18): 4941 DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-13-1253

Cite This Page:

American Association for Cancer Research (AACR). "Targets for melanoma immunotherapy identified." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 10 September 2013. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/09/130910140933.htm>.
American Association for Cancer Research (AACR). (2013, September 10). Targets for melanoma immunotherapy identified. ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 26, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/09/130910140933.htm
American Association for Cancer Research (AACR). "Targets for melanoma immunotherapy identified." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/09/130910140933.htm (accessed November 26, 2014).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Health & Medicine News

Wednesday, November 26, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Pet Dogs to Be Used in Anti-Ageing Trial

Pet Dogs to Be Used in Anti-Ageing Trial

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Nov. 26, 2014) — Researchers in the United States are preparing to discover whether a drug commonly used in human organ transplants can extend the lifespan and health quality of pet dogs. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Today's Prostheses Are More Capable Than Ever

Today's Prostheses Are More Capable Than Ever

Newsy (Nov. 26, 2014) — Advances in prosthetics are making replacement body parts stronger and more lifelike than they’ve ever been. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
From Popcorn To Vending Snacks: FDA Ups Calorie Count Rules

From Popcorn To Vending Snacks: FDA Ups Calorie Count Rules

Newsy (Nov. 25, 2014) — The US FDA is announcing new calorie rules on Tuesday that will require everywhere from theaters to vending machines to include calorie counts. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Daily Serving Of Yogurt Could Reduce Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes

Daily Serving Of Yogurt Could Reduce Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes

Newsy (Nov. 25, 2014) — Need another reason to eat yogurt every day? Researchers now say it could reduce a person's risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories

 

Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins