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Plants use different scents to attract or repel insects

Date:
March 31, 2014
Source:
University of Zurich
Summary:
Flowering plants attract pollinating insects with scent from their flowers and bright colors. If they have become infested with herbivores like caterpillars, they attract beneficial insects like parasitic wasps with the help of scent signals from their leaves. The wasps then lay their eggs in the caterpillars and kill the parasites. Floral and foliar scents can, however, mutually reduce their attractiveness. That’s why flowering plants face a dilemma: should they use their resources to attract pollinating insects and, by extension, for reproduction or should they invest in defense against herbivores?

This is a turnip rape with pollinating bumblebee and caterpillar.
Credit: UZH

Flowering plants attract pollinating insects with scent from their flowers and bright colours. If they have become infested with herbivores like caterpillars, they attract beneficial insects like parasitic wasps with the help of scent signals from their leaves. The wasps then lay their eggs in the caterpillars and kill the parasites. Floral and foliar scents can, however, mutually reduce their attractiveness. That's why flowering plants face a dilemma: should they use their resources to attract pollinating insects and, by extension, for reproduction or should they invest in defence against herbivores?

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A Swiss-Italian research team headed by Florian Schiestl from the University of Zurich has now demonstrated that plants are able to adjust their scent bouquet to their needs at any given time and, in this way, to attract partner or useful insects in a more targeted manner.

The scientists examined the reactions of turnip rape -- an edible flowering plant closely related to rape -- after its infestation with herbivores. The researchers demonstrate that the infested plants markedly reduce their floral scent so as to attract parasitic wasps with scent signals from their leaves. "Decreasing the floral scent makes the plant less attractive to the insects which pollinate it. At the same time, it is then more attractive for the parasitic wasps," is how Florian Schiestl explains this mechanism. After infestation with herbivores and attracting wasps, the plants produce more flowers to compensate for their reduced attractiveness and to attract pollinating insects. "Floral scents are thus part of a complex trade-off with other scents that likewise attract beneficial insects," says Schiestl.

The results illustrate important ecological interactions when a plant attracts partner insects. Schiestl is of the opinion that the new findings may be relevant for the organic cultivation of useful plants. "One could try to optimise the attraction of parasitic wasps with less fragrant varieties and the attraction of pollinators with more fragrant ones."


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of Zurich. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Florian P. Schiestl, Heather Kirk, Laurent Bigler, Salvatore Cozzolino, Gaylord A. Desurmont. Herbivory and floral signaling: phenotypic plasticity and tradeoffs between reproduction and indirect defense. New Phytologist, 2014; DOI: 10.1111/nph.12783

Cite This Page:

University of Zurich. "Plants use different scents to attract or repel insects." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 31 March 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/03/140331083734.htm>.
University of Zurich. (2014, March 31). Plants use different scents to attract or repel insects. ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 27, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/03/140331083734.htm
University of Zurich. "Plants use different scents to attract or repel insects." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/03/140331083734.htm (accessed March 27, 2015).

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