Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

International team sequences rainbow trout genome

Date:
April 22, 2014
Source:
Washington State University
Summary:
An international team of researchers has mapped the genetic profile of the rainbow trout, a versatile salmonid whose relatively recent genetic history opens a window into how vertebrates evolve. The investigators focused on the rate at which genes have evolved since a rare genome doubling event occurred in the rainbow trout approximately 100 million years ago.

Rainbow trout or Salmon trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) close-up (stock image).
Credit: © Nikolay Pozdeyev / Fotolia

Using fish bred at Washington State University, an international team of researchers has mapped the genetic profile of the rainbow trout, a versatile salmonid whose relatively recent genetic history opens a window into how vertebrates evolve.

The 30-person team, led by Yann Guiguen of the French National Institute for Agricultural Research, reports its findings this week in Nature Communications.

The investigators focused on the rate at which genes have evolved since a rare genome doubling event occurred in the rainbow trout approximately 100 million years ago. Unlike most evolutionary processes involving mutations and the selection of advantageous traits, a doubling event acts like the copied draft of a piece of writing that can be edited and recast without the risk of destroying the earlier version.

Ordinarily, the consequences of such doubling events are lost to science as they get cast out as a result of genetic changes in subsequent generations. But because 100 million years is a relatively short time for doubling events, the trout researchers could in effect glimpse the fish's evolutionary editing process.

"In humans and most vertebrates the duplication events were older so there are fewer duplicated genes still present," said Gary Thorgaard, a co-author and WSU biologist with four decades of experience peering into the trout's genes. "Most of the duplicated genes get lost or modified so much that they are no longer recognizable as duplicates over time. In the trout and salmon we can see an earlier stage in the process and many duplicated genes are still present. "

The rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, is one of life's great success stories. It has straddled the worlds of nature and nurture, naturally thriving in a range of temperatures and water quality while responding to domestication so well that it has been spread by human hand from the Pacific Rim to thrive in waters on six continents.

In Washington alone, state hatchery crews have stocked more than 16 million fish in lakes. The lowland-lake trout-fishing season opener, which takes place this year on April 26, draws some 300,000 people, making it the state's most popular outdoor sporting event.

Thorgaard, the only American on the largely French research team, provided genetic material from the Swanson line of rainbow trout. Originally from Alaska's Kenai Peninsula, the fish has been cloned at WSU, ensuring that researchers are looking at the same fish in successive studies and simplifying interpretation of its sequenced genes.

"Several studies had previously been done on the Swanson clonal line," said Thorgaard, "which helped in producing and interpreting the genome sequence in this study."

WSU research associate Joe Brunelli extracted DNA from fin tissue, using fish managed with several other lines by Paul Wheeler in the Pullman campus's indoor fish hatchery.

Guiguen and his colleagues used both the genome sequence and gene expression data from the rainbow trout to show that roughly half of all protein coding genes have been deleted since its genetic doubling event. It has retained almost all its microRNA genes, which help regulate gene expression.

The researchers also found the fish retained original or nearly original genes involved in embryonic development and development of connections between nerve cells. The timing associated with these changes suggests gene evolution after an event such as this is a much slower process than previously thought.

"It seems that the rate of evolution can vary in different situations," said Thorgaard. "Some animals, like the lungfish and coelacanth, are 'living fossils' that have been around for hundreds of millions of years without changing very much. Others, like the polar bear, seem to have evolved quite recently. After the trout gene duplication, the process happened more slowly than it has in most other vertebrate animals, and we can still watch it going on."


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Washington State University. The original article was written by Eric Sorensen. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Camille Berthelot, Frédéric Brunet, Domitille Chalopin, Amélie Juanchich, Maria Bernard, Benjamin Noël, Pascal Bento, Corinne Da Silva, Karine Labadie, Adriana Alberti, Jean-Marc Aury, Alexandra Louis, Patrice Dehais, Philippe Bardou, Jérôme Montfort, Christophe Klopp, Cédric Cabau, Christine Gaspin, Gary H. Thorgaard, Mekki Boussaha, Edwige Quillet, René Guyomard, Delphine Galiana, Julien Bobe, Jean-Nicolas Volff, Carine Genêt, Patrick Wincker, Olivier Jaillon, Hugues Roest Crollius, Yann Guiguen. The rainbow trout genome provides novel insights into evolution after whole-genome duplication in vertebrates. Nature Communications, 2014; 5 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms4657

Cite This Page:

Washington State University. "International team sequences rainbow trout genome." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 22 April 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/04/140422113345.htm>.
Washington State University. (2014, April 22). International team sequences rainbow trout genome. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 30, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/04/140422113345.htm
Washington State University. "International team sequences rainbow trout genome." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/04/140422113345.htm (accessed September 30, 2014).

Share This



More Plants & Animals News

Tuesday, September 30, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

California University Designs Sustainable Winery

California University Designs Sustainable Winery

Reuters - US Online Video (Sep. 27, 2014) — Amid California's worst drought in decades, scientists at UC Davis design a sustainable winery that includes a water recycling system. Vanessa Johnston reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Argentina Worries Over Decline of Soybean Prices

Argentina Worries Over Decline of Soybean Prices

AFP (Sep. 27, 2014) — The drop in price of soy on the international market is a cause for concern in Argentina, as soybean exports are a major source of income for Latin America's third largest economy. Duration: 01:10 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Mama Bear, Cubs Hang out in California Backyard

Mama Bear, Cubs Hang out in California Backyard

Reuters - US Online Video (Sep. 27, 2014) — A mama bear and her two cubs climb trees, wrestle and take naps in the backyard of a Monrovia, California home. Vanessa Johnston reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
'Crazy' Climate Forces Colombian Farmers to Adapt

'Crazy' Climate Forces Colombian Farmers to Adapt

AFP (Sep. 26, 2014) — Once upon a time, farming was a blissfully low-tech business on Colombia's northern plains. Duration: 02:05 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories

 

Plants & Animals

Earth & Climate

Fossils & Ruins

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins