Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Genetic alterations in lung cancers help select treatment

Date:
May 20, 2014
Source:
The JAMA Network Journals
Summary:
Multiplexed testing of lung cancer tumors identified genetic alterations that were helpful in selecting targeted treatments, a study has shown. Patients that received matched therapy for lung cancer lived longer than patients who did not receive directed therapy, although randomized clinical trials are required to determine if this treatment strategy improves survival.

Multiplexed testing of lung cancer tumors identified genetic alterations that were helpful in selecting targeted treatments. Patients that received matched therapy for lung cancer lived longer than patients who did not receive directed therapy, although randomized clinical trials are required to determine if this treatment strategy improves survival, according to a study in the May 21 issue of JAMA.

The introduction of targeted therapy has transformed the care of patients with lung cancers by incorporating tumor genotyping into treatment decisions. Adenocarcinoma, the most common type of lung cancer, is diagnosed in 130,000 patients in the United States and 1 million persons worldwide each year. Adenocarcinoma is also the type of lung cancer with a higher than 50 percent estimated frequency of actionable oncogenic drivers, which are molecular abnormalities that are critical to cancer development. These drivers are defined as "actionable" because the effects of those abnormalities can be negated by agents directed against each genomic alteration, according to background information in the article.

Mark G. Kris, M.D., of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, and colleagues examined the frequency of oncogenic drivers in patients with lung adenocarcinomas, and the proportion of patients in whom this data was used to select treatments targeting the identified driver(s) along with overall survival. From 2009 through 2012, 14 sites of the Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium enrolled patients with metastatic lung adenocarcinomas and tested the tumors of patients who met certain criteria for 10 oncogenic drivers.

During the study period, tumors from 1,007 patients were tested for at least 1 gene and 733 for 10 genes (patients with full genotyping). An oncogenic driver was found in 466 of 733 patients (64 percent). Results were used to select a targeted therapy or clinical trial in 275 of 1,007 patients (28 percent).

The 260 patients with an oncogenic driver and treatment with a targeted agent had a median (midpoint) survival of 3.5 years; the 318 patients with a driver and no targeted therapy, 2.4 years; and the 360 patients with no driver identified, 2.1 years.

The authors conclude that multiplexed tested aided physicians in selecting lung cancer therapies. Although individuals with drivers receiving a matched targeted agent lived longer, the study design was not appropriate to reach definitive conclusions about survival differences being attributable to the use of oncogenic drivers.

Editorial: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Precision Medicine

Boris Pasche, M.D., Ph.D., of Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, N.C., and Stefan C. Grant, M.D., J.D., M.B.A., of the University of Alabama at Birmingham, comment on the findings of this study in an accompanying editorial.

"In summary, the study by Kris et al demonstrates the proof of principle that multiplex testing of actionable driver mutations is feasible and can allow for effective treatment stratification. After decades of small, albeit significant, improvements in the care of patients with lung cancer, the advent of genetic testing of tumors, identification of driver mutations, and development of drugs able to specifically target these mutations, have produced substantial improvements in survival for patients with targetable driver mutations. Although much remains to be done, the incorporation of genomic medicine into the study and treatment of lung cancer represents, at the very least, the end of the beginning for the care of these and other patients with cancer."


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by The JAMA Network Journals. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal References:

  1. Mark G. Kris, Bruce E. Johnson, Lynne D. Berry, David J. Kwiatkowski, A. John Iafrate, Ignacio I. Wistuba, Marileila Varella-Garcia, Wilbur A. Franklin, Samuel L. Aronson, Pei-Fang Su, Yu Shyr, D. Ross Camidge, Lecia V. Sequist, Bonnie S. Glisson, Fadlo R. Khuri, Edward B. Garon, William Pao, Charles Rudin, Joan Schiller, Eric B. Haura, Mark Socinski, Keisuke Shirai, Heidi Chen, Giuseppe Giaccone, Marc Ladanyi, Kelly Kugler, John D. Minna, Paul A. Bunn. Using Multiplexed Assays of Oncogenic Drivers in Lung Cancers to Select Targeted Drugs. JAMA, 2014; 311 (19): 1998 DOI: 10.1001/jama.2014.3741
  2. Boris Pasche, Stefan C. Grant. Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer and Precision Medicine. JAMA, 2014; 311 (19): 1975 DOI: 10.1001/jama.2014.3742

Cite This Page:

The JAMA Network Journals. "Genetic alterations in lung cancers help select treatment." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 20 May 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/05/140520163002.htm>.
The JAMA Network Journals. (2014, May 20). Genetic alterations in lung cancers help select treatment. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 21, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/05/140520163002.htm
The JAMA Network Journals. "Genetic alterations in lung cancers help select treatment." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/05/140520163002.htm (accessed October 21, 2014).

Share This



More Health & Medicine News

Tuesday, October 21, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

How Nigeria Beat Its Ebola Outbreak

How Nigeria Beat Its Ebola Outbreak

Newsy (Oct. 20, 2014) The World Health Organization has declared Nigeria free of Ebola. Health experts credit a bit of luck and the government's initial response. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Another Study Suggests Viagra Is Good For The Heart

Another Study Suggests Viagra Is Good For The Heart

Newsy (Oct. 20, 2014) An ingredient in erectile-dysfunction medications such as Viagra could improve heart function. Perhaps not surprising, given Viagra's history. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Ebola Worries End for Dozens on U.S. Watch Lists

Ebola Worries End for Dozens on U.S. Watch Lists

Reuters - US Online Video (Oct. 20, 2014) Forty-three people who had contact with Thomas Eric Duncan, the first person diagnosed with Ebola in the U.S., were cleared overnight of twice-daily monitoring after 21 days of showing no symptoms. Rough Cut (no reporter narration). Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
CDC Calls for New Ebola Safety Guidelines

CDC Calls for New Ebola Safety Guidelines

AP (Oct. 20, 2014) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Director Dr. Tom Frieden laid out new guidelines for health care workers when dealing with the deadly Ebola virus including new precautions when taking off personal protective equipment. (Oct. 20) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins