Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

New jigsaw piece for the repair of DNA crosslinks

Date:
May 27, 2014
Source:
University of Zurich
Summary:
Environmental influences such as ionizing radiation, intense heat or various chemical substances damage the DNA constantly. Only thanks to efficient repair systems can mutations – changes in the DNA – largely be prevented. DNA crosslinks that link both strands of the DNA double helix are among the most dangerous DNA lesions. Crosslinks block DNA replication and can thus cause cell death. Moreover, their faulty repair can trigger the development of tumors. Crosslink repair is highly complex and only vaguely understood.

Environmental influences such as ionizing radiation, intense heat or various chemical substances damage the DNA constantly. Only thanks to efficient repair systems can mutations -- changes in the DNA -- largely be prevented. DNA crosslinks that covalently link both strands of the DNA double helix are among the most dangerous DNA lesions. Crosslinks block DNA replication and can thus cause cell death. Moreover, their faulty repair can trigger the development of tumors.

Crosslink repair is highly complex and only vaguely understood today. A team of cancer researchers headed by Alessandro Sartori from the University of Zurich now reveals interesting details as to how cells recognize crosslink damage. In their study recently published in Cell Reports, the scientists demonstrate that the interplay between two specific proteins is crucial for the flawless repair of crosslink damage.

Repair protein recognizes crosslink damage with the aid of a signal protein

For their study, the researchers examined the Fanconi anemia signal pathway, which coordinates the complex repair of crosslinks, with the aid of genetically modified and unchanged cells. Sartori and his team wanted to find out whether and how the signal pathway and the repair protein CtIP interact with one another. "We are able to show that CtIP recognizes and repairs crosslinks efficiently with the aid of the Fanconi anemia signal pathway, or FANCD2 to be more precise," explains Sartori. The scientists also discovered the point where CtIP attaches itself to the FANCD2 protein. According to the researchers, the interplay between the two proteins is necessary for the flawless and smooth repair of crosslink damage as it prevents the relocation of entire chromosome sections to another position (see figure). Referred to as chromosomal translocation, the process is one of the main causes of the development of cancer.

These days, substances that specifically trigger crosslink damage are used in cancer chemotherapy. The new findings are therefore important for both our understanding of the development of cancer and the further development of improved drugs.

Fanconi anemia

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare congenital disorder that was first described in 1927 by Guido Fanconi (1892­-1979), Professor of Pediatrics at the University of Zurich. Fanconi anemia is triggered by mutations in genes that regulate the repair of DNA crosslinks. Patients who suffer from Fanconi anemia display bone marrow failure already during childhood and have a risk of developing cancer that is about 1,000 times higher compared to healthy individuals. Only around a third of Fanconi anemia patients live beyond the age of 30.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of Zurich. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Olga Murina, Christine von Aesch, Ufuk Karakus, Lorenza P. Ferretti, Hella A. Bolck, Kay Hänggi, Alessandro A. Sartori. FANCD2 and CtIP Cooperate to Repair DNA Interstrand Crosslinks. Cell Reports, 2014; 7 (4): 1030 DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2014.03.069

Cite This Page:

University of Zurich. "New jigsaw piece for the repair of DNA crosslinks." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 27 May 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/05/140527085443.htm>.
University of Zurich. (2014, May 27). New jigsaw piece for the repair of DNA crosslinks. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 20, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/05/140527085443.htm
University of Zurich. "New jigsaw piece for the repair of DNA crosslinks." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/05/140527085443.htm (accessed October 20, 2014).

Share This



More Health & Medicine News

Monday, October 20, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Microneedle Patch Promises Painless Pricks

Microneedle Patch Promises Painless Pricks

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Oct. 18, 2014) — Researchers at The National University of Singapore have invented a new microneedle patch that could offer a faster and less painful delivery of drugs such as insulin and painkillers. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Raw: Nurse Nina Pham Arrives in Maryland

Raw: Nurse Nina Pham Arrives in Maryland

AP (Oct. 17, 2014) — The first nurse to be diagnosed with Ebola at a Dallas hospital walked down the stairs of an executive jet into an ambulance at an airport in Frederick, Maryland, on Thursday. Pham will be treated at the National Institutes of Health. (Oct. 16) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Raw: Cruise Ship Returns to US Over Ebola Fears

Raw: Cruise Ship Returns to US Over Ebola Fears

AP (Oct. 17, 2014) — A Caribbean cruise ship carrying a Dallas health care worker who is being monitored for signs of the Ebola virus is heading back to Texas, US, after being refused permission to dock in Cozumel, Mexico. (Oct. 17) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Spanish Govt: Four Suspected Ebola Cases in Spain Test Negative

Spanish Govt: Four Suspected Ebola Cases in Spain Test Negative

AFP (Oct. 17, 2014) — All four suspected Ebola cases admitted to hospitals in Spain on Thursday have tested negative for the deadly virus in a first round of tests, the government said Friday. Duration: 00:55 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories

 

Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins