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Excavated dolmen in Sweden one of the oldest in Scandinavia

Date:
January 29, 2024
Source:
University of Gothenburg
Summary:
The first analysis results now confirm that the grave in Tiarp is one of the oldest stone burial chambers in Sweden. The researchers noted that some parts of the people buried in the grave are missing, such as skulls and thigh bones, posing intriguing questions for archaeologists.
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The first analysis results now confirm that the grave in Tiarp is one of the oldest stone burial chambers in Sweden. "It's an early grave which dates to the Early Neolithic period, about 3500 BCE," says archaeologist Karl-Göran Sjögren. The researchers also noted that some parts of the people buried in the grave are missing, such as skulls and thigh bones, posing intriguing questions for archaeologists.

Last summer, archaeologists from Gothenburg University and Kiel University excavated a dolmen, a stone burial chamber, in Tiarp near Falköping in Sweden. The archaeologists judge that the grave has remained untouched since the Stone Age. However, the odd thing is that parts of the skeletons of the people buried are missing.

Skulls and large bones are missing and may have been removed from the grave. We don't know whether that has to do with burial rituals or what's behind it," says Karl-Göran Sjögren.

Now that the researchers have examined the material from the grave, they have found that it contains bones from hands and feet, fragments of rib bones and teeth. But skulls and larger bones such as thigh and arm bones are very few.

"This differs from what we usually see in megalith graves, i.e. stone burial chambers from the Neolithic period," Karl-Göran Sjögren explains. "Usually, the bones that are missing are smaller bones from feet and hands."

Torbjörn Ahlström, Professor of Osteology at Lund University, studied the bone finds. His conclusion is that the bones come from at least twelve people, including infants and the elderly. But the archaeologists don't yet know why they died.

"We haven't seen any injuries on the people buried so we don't think violence is involved. But we are continuing to study their DNA and that will show whether they had any diseases," says Karl-Göran Sjögren.

Falköping has long been known for its many passage graves dating from a somewhat later period, approximately 3300 BCE. Agriculture reached Falbygden in about 4000 BCE, i.e. about 500 years before the grave in Tiarp was built. In all likelihood, the people buried in the dolmen were farmers.

"They lived by growing grain and keeping animals and they consumed dairy products," says Karl-Göran Sjögren.

Are the people buried in the grave related?

A number of samples were taken at the excavation last summer, including DNA from the skeletal remains.

"The preliminary DNA results show that the DNA in the bones is well preserved. This means we will be able to reconstruct the family relationships between the people in the grave and we are working on that now," says Karl-Göran Sjögren.

Falbygden is known for its many traces of people from the Stone Age. There are more than 250 passage graves here, large graves built of blocks of stone.

"But this dolmen is older. It's about 200 to 150 years older than the passage graves, making it one of the oldest stone burial chambers in Sweden and across the whole of Scandinavia," says Karl-Göran Sjögren.

There is another thing that makes the grave unique.

"It's the way it is constructed. There's a little niche at each end. This is unique for graves in Falbygden," says Karl-Göran Sjögren.

The study is freely available as open access in Journal of Neolithic Archaeology. Tiarp Backgården. An Early Neolithic Dolmen in Falbygden, Sweden and Early Megalithic Tombs in South Scandinavia and Northern Central Europe.

Facts

  • The grave in Tiarp Backgården in Falköping, was first found in 1929. It was studied by archaeologists at the time, and then again in 2014, which was when it was discovered that the grave was more or less intact and had bodies buried inside it.
  • The archaeological excavation in Tiarp in summer 2023 was carried out jointly by Gothenburg and Kiel Universities.
  • Study participants Karl-Göran Sjögren, Malou Blank and Tony Axelsson, Department of Historical Studies, Gothenburg University. Torbjörn Ahlström, Lund University Stefan Dreibrodt, Institute for Ecosystem Research, Kiel University Johannes Müller, Institute of Prehistoric and Protohistoric Archaeology, Kiel University.

Story Source:

Materials provided by University of Gothenburg. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Sjögren et al. An Early Neolithic Dolmen in Falbygden, Sweden and Early Megalithic Tombs in South Scandinavia and Northern Central Europe. JNA, 2023 [abstract]

Cite This Page:

University of Gothenburg. "Excavated dolmen in Sweden one of the oldest in Scandinavia." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 29 January 2024. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2024/01/240129122440.htm>.
University of Gothenburg. (2024, January 29). Excavated dolmen in Sweden one of the oldest in Scandinavia. ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 3, 2024 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2024/01/240129122440.htm
University of Gothenburg. "Excavated dolmen in Sweden one of the oldest in Scandinavia." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2024/01/240129122440.htm (accessed March 3, 2024).

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