Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

New AIDS Vaccine Plus Booster Shot Give Best Results

Date:
April 23, 1998
Source:
Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions
Summary:
A vaccine pairing a genetically altered, harmless canarypox virus, and a genetically engineered piece of the HIV protein coat, induce immune system activity against laboratory strains of HIV better than either vaccine alone, according to a Johns Hopkins School of Public Health researcher.

A vaccine pairing a genetically altered, harmless canarypox virus, and a genetically engineered piece of the HIV protein coat, induce immune system activity against laboratory strains of HIV better than either vaccine alone, according to a Johns Hopkins School of Public Health researcher.

"The results of tests on 131 people at low risk for HIV infection convinced us we should continue testing two-vaccine combinations," says Mary Lou Clements-Mann, M.D., M.P.H., professor of international health and lead author of a report on the multicenter trial published in the May 1998 issue of The Journal of Infectious Diseases. The study was supported by the National Institutes of Health.

The researchers are now conducting further trials in which canarypox vaccines with genes for HIV envelope protein -- a piece of the outside covering of the virus -- and other HIV gene products are given together or in sequence. These vaccines also are being tested in volunteers at high risk for HIV infection due to unsafe sex or other behaviors, according to Clements-Mann.

The combination vaccines stimulated anti-HIV immune system activity in volunteers better than either vaccine alone, sparking production of both anti-HIV antibodies and CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), white blood cells that destroy cells infected with the HIV virus, says Clements-Mann.

The multicenter team tested the two-vaccine combination -- called ALVAC-gp160/rpg120 -- because previous research suggested that a successful AIDS vaccine might need to induce both antibodies and CD8+ CTLs to eliminate HIV from the body. Past vaccines made with altered live vaccinia viruses expressing HIV proteins could potentially spread from person to person and possibly harm persons with AIDS, according to Clements-Mann. But the genetically engineered canarypox viruses do not multiply in humans, she says. "Therefore, we believe these vaccines will be safe and not be transmissible to people vaccine volunteers are in contact with."

The ALVAC-gp160 protein made from the canarypox virus, the "prime" vaccine used in the study, was given twice to stimulate production of CD8+ CTLs and prime the immune system for producing HIV antibodies. The rgp120 vaccine was then given to boost antibody production.

In some volunteers, ALVAC-gp160 given four times, without the rgp120 booster, induced antibody production, but at a much lower level.

The team also found that people previously immunized with smallpox vaccine (vaccinia virus) responded to the canarypox vaccine just as well as those who had never received smallpox vaccine.

The researchers tested two dosages of ALVAC-gp160 given alone four times or given twice, followed by two immunizations with rgp120. Another group received rgp120 alone four times. All 38 volunteers immunized with both vaccines produced anti-HIV antibodies that killed -- or neutralized -- HIV strains in the test tube, while 19 of 31 volunteers given ALVAC-gp160 alone, and eight of nine given rgp120 alone, produced neutralizing antibodies.

The researchers detected anti-HIV CD8+ CTL activity mainly in volunteers getting ALVAC-gp160 alone (four of 18 recipients), or in combination with rgp120 (seven of 19). Only one in 10 volunteers who got rgp120 alone had CD8+ CTL activity.

Other authors of the study include Kent Weinhold, Thomas J. Matthews, Barney S. Graham, Geoffrey J. Gorse, Michael C. Keefer, M. Juliana McElrath, Ray-Hahn Hsieh, Jiri Mestecky, Susan Zolla-Pazner, John Mascola, David Schwartz, Robert Siliciano, Lawrence Corey, Peter F. Wright, Robert Belshe, Raphael Dolin, Susan Jackson, Serena Xu, Patricia Fast, Mary Clare Walker, Don Stablein, Jean-Louis Excler, James Tartaglia, Anne-Marie Dullege, Fauk Siinangil, Enzo Paoletti, and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Group.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions. "New AIDS Vaccine Plus Booster Shot Give Best Results." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 23 April 1998. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1998/04/980423071253.htm>.
Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions. (1998, April 23). New AIDS Vaccine Plus Booster Shot Give Best Results. ScienceDaily. Retrieved August 20, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1998/04/980423071253.htm
Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions. "New AIDS Vaccine Plus Booster Shot Give Best Results." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1998/04/980423071253.htm (accessed August 20, 2014).

Share This




More Health & Medicine News

Wednesday, August 20, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Possible Ebola Patient in Isolation at California Hospital

Possible Ebola Patient in Isolation at California Hospital

Reuters - US Online Video (Aug. 20, 2014) — A patient who may have been exposed to the Ebola virus is in isolation at the Kaiser Permanente South Sacramento Medical Center. Linda So reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Raw: World's Oldest Man Lives in Japan

Raw: World's Oldest Man Lives in Japan

AP (Aug. 20, 2014) — A 111-year-old Japanese was certified as the world's oldest man by Guinness World Records on Wednesday. Sakari Momoi, a native of Fukushima in northern Japan, was given a certificate at a hospital in Tokyo. (Aug. 20) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Do More Wedding Guests Make A Happier Marriage?

Do More Wedding Guests Make A Happier Marriage?

Newsy (Aug. 20, 2014) — A new study found couples who had at least 150 guests at their weddings were more likely to report being happy in their marriages. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Ebola-Hit Sierra Leone's Freetown a City on Edge

Ebola-Hit Sierra Leone's Freetown a City on Edge

AFP (Aug. 19, 2014) — Residents of Sierra Leone's capital voice their fears as the Ebola virus sweeps through west Africa. Duration: 00:56 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins