Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Small Discovery Has Large Implications

Date:
August 8, 2005
Source:
University Of Southern California
Summary:
Microscopic fossils found in China emerge as the oldest examples of animals that display bilateral symmetry -- two halves that are mirror images of each other. The find by a USC paleontologist and his peers focused on critters that date back millions of years.

Bottjer was among the group that discovered the fossils -- period-sized blobs believed to have skimmed the ocean floor with suction-cup mouths some 580 to 600 million years ago.
Credit: Photo Philip Channing

They were the width of a few hairs pressed together, but themicroscopic fossils discovered in China were enormous in theirimplications.

Related Articles


The fossils turned out to be the oldest examples of a bilaterian --animals that display bilateral symmetry, meaning their right and lefthalves are mirror images. The remarkable 2004 discovery pushed back thegenesis of complex animal life by as many as 50 million years.

USC College paleontologist David J. Bottjer was among the group thatdiscovered the fossils -- period-sized blobs believed to have skimmedthe ocean floor with suction-cup mouths some 580 to 600 million yearsago.

In the August edition of Scientific American magazine, Bottjer wroteabout his experience and these minute, yet developed, creatures.Looking like teensy gumdrops or squashed helmets, they contain tissuelayers, a gut, mouth and anus.

In Bottjer's article, which includes color graphics, he describedcollecting a truckload of black rocks in Guizhou Province in 2002 withother researchers, including then-USC graduate student Stephen Q.Dornbos. The group joined forces in their quest for the earliestbilaterians at the urging of Eric Davidson, a molecular biologist atCaltech.

Bottjer, a professor of earth and biological sciences, recalled thecertainty of another participant, Jun-Yuan Chen, a paleontologist atthe Chinese Academy of Sciences in Nanjing. Chen, a pioneer in thestudy of early animal life, was certain that specimens of bilateriananimals would be found in the ancient rock heap. He was right.

But it took incredible patience and work to uncover the fossils,which measure about 200 micrometers across. The team sliced the samplesinto thousands of see-through-thin layers and examined them under amicroscope. Finally, among the 10,000 slides, the collaboratorsdiscovered 10 examples of the fossil type they had been seeking. Aftermore months of painstaking analysis, the group confirmed the exampleswere fossils of miniscule bilaterian animals.

"We were pretty excited when we saw what we had," Bottjer recalled. "It was sort of a 'holy cow!'-like experience."

They named the find Vernanimalcula, meaning small, spring animal.The name refers to the time they lived after glaciers covered theplanet.

The discovery is crucial. It suggests that the earliest ancestors tomodern-day animals developed before the Cambrian explosion. Thatso-called explosion period, 488 to 542 million years ago, envelops thetime on Earth when most animal groups first appeared.

In his article, Bottjer suggests that the famous Cambrian explosionwas more accurately "the exploitation of newly present conditions byanimals that had already evolved the genetic tools to take advantage ofthese novel habitats."

Rather than solely genetics, it may have been the critters' abilityto grow large that led to the explosion. The growth spurt, Bottjersaid, may have been caused by a drastic rise in dissolved oxygen inseawater. More oxygen for breathing reduces size constraints.

Despite the findings, the quest for fossils of early bilaterians has not ended.

"There's got to be older stuff out there," Bottjer said. "We have tohope that we can find even older rocks that contain these tiny things."


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University Of Southern California. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

University Of Southern California. "Small Discovery Has Large Implications." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 8 August 2005. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/08/050805192316.htm>.
University Of Southern California. (2005, August 8). Small Discovery Has Large Implications. ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 18, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/08/050805192316.htm
University Of Southern California. "Small Discovery Has Large Implications." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/08/050805192316.htm (accessed December 18, 2014).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Fossils & Ruins News

Thursday, December 18, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Researchers Bring Player Pianos Back to Life

Researchers Bring Player Pianos Back to Life

AP (Dec. 17, 2014) Stanford University wants to unlock the secrets of the player piano. Researchers are restoring and studying self-playing pianos and the music rolls that recorded major composers performing their own work. (Dec. 17) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Domestication Might've Been Bad For Horses

Domestication Might've Been Bad For Horses

Newsy (Dec. 16, 2014) A group of scientists looked at the genetics behind the domestication of the horse and showed how human manipulation changed horses' DNA. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Mozart, Beethoven, Shubert and Bizet Manuscripts to Go on Sale

Mozart, Beethoven, Shubert and Bizet Manuscripts to Go on Sale

AFP (Dec. 16, 2014) A collection of rare manuscripts by composers Mozart, Beethoven, Shubert and Bizet are due to go on sale at auction on December 17. Duration: 00:57 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Old Ship Records to Shed Light on Arctic Ice Loss

Old Ship Records to Shed Light on Arctic Ice Loss

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Dec. 15, 2014) Researchers are looking to the past to gain a clearer picture of what the future holds for ice in the Arctic. A project to analyse and digitize ship logs dating back to the 1850's aims to lengthen the timeline of recorded ice data. Ben Gruber reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Plants & Animals

Earth & Climate

Fossils & Ruins

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins