Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

World's Tiniest Test Tubes Get Teensiest Corks

Date:
May 10, 2006
Source:
University of Florida
Summary:
Now all they need is a really, really small corkscrew. Like Lilliputian chemists, scientists have found a way to "cork" infinitesimally small nano test tubes. The goal is a better way to deliver drugs, for example, for cancer treatment. Scientists want to fill the teeny tubes with drugs and inject them into the body, where they will seek diseased or cancerous cells, uncork and spill their therapeutic contents in the right place.

Rows of tiny nano test tubes rest on a mesh in this electron microscope photo, shot in October of last year and colorized for added clarity. Seeking to deliver drugs within the body, University of Florida scientists have found a way to β€œcork” the tubes. The goal is to develop the ability to fill the teeny tubes with drugs and inject them into the body, where they will seek diseased or cancerous cells, uncork and spill their therapeutic contents in the right place.
Credit: Image courtesy of University of Florida

Like Lilliputian chemists, scientists have found a way to “cork” infinitesimally small nano test tubes. The goal is a better way to deliver drugs, for example, for cancer treatment. Scientists want to fill the teeny tubes with drugs and inject them into the body, where they will seek diseased or cancerous cells, uncork and spill their therapeutic contents in the right place.

“After making the nano test tubes, we saw the potential for them to be used for drug delivery vehicles, but because they are open at one end it would be like trying to ship wine in a bottle without a cork,” said University of Florida chemistry professor Charles Martin. “You have to cork it, which is what we have accomplished.”

Martin is one of six University of Florida chemistry faculty members and graduate students who co-authored a paper about the research that appeared last month in the Journal of the American Chemical Society.

While chemotherapy works against many cancers, it can cause severe side effects such as nausea, temporary hair loss and blood disease. To make the chemo hit only the cancerous cells, Martin and scientists elsewhere have spent recent years experimenting with drug-carrying nanotubes or nanoparticles.

“Nano” stems from nanotechnology, the fast-growing science of making objects or devices that approach molecular dimensions. One nanometer equals one-billionth of a meter.

The approach makes sense for attacking diseased cells while bypassing healthy ones, but it also poses challenges. For one thing, the nanotubes must recognize their target, a problem scientists are attacking by tweaking their chemistry to make it respond to the unique chemistry of cancer cells. The tubes also must be biologically benign. Martin says a method for making nanotubes he pioneered, template synthesis, allows manufacturers to use biodegradable material, such as the polylactides that compose biodegradable sutures.

Additionally, the tubes also had to be closed at one end to form the classic test tube shape, a problem Martin and his group solved in research published in 2004.

To “cork” the test tubes in the latest research, the researchers applied an amino chemical group to the mouth of the tubes and an aldehyde chemical group to the corks. The two groups are complementary, so they bond with one another.

Billions of nanotubes could fit on a postage stamp. So, said Martin, “we don’t put individual caps in each nanotube the way corking machines do for bottles.”

Instead, the scientists immerse a small mesh that holds millions of amino-modified nanotubes, all precisely lined up in a grid pattern, into a solution imbued with millions of the corks. Brownian motion — what happens when minute particles immersed in a fluid move about randomly — takes care of the rest. The corks simply float around, then slip into the mouths of the tubes as they encounter them.

The diameter of the tubes is about 80 nanometers, or 80-billionths of a meter. Even though they are tiny, each tube can hold about 5 million drug molecules. “Each tube packs a real punch in terms of the number of drug molecules it can deliver,” Martin said.

Sang Bok Lee, an assistant professor of chemistry and biochemistry at the University of Maryland, works on similar research. He said scientists have proposed capping the tubes using chemical interactions between the drugs and the tubes. But that might not work because the tube could leak before it reaches its target.

“I strongly agree that Professor Martin’s proposed strategy will be one of the ideal solutions for the problem of controlling drug uptake and release,” he said in an e-mail.

The UF scientists aren’t there yet. There’s no easy way to unlock the amino chemical group from the aldehyde chemical group. So while Martin says there are some promising possibilities, he and his colleagues have their next job cut out for them: figuring out how to uncork the tubes.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of Florida. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

University of Florida. "World's Tiniest Test Tubes Get Teensiest Corks." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 10 May 2006. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/05/060510191241.htm>.
University of Florida. (2006, May 10). World's Tiniest Test Tubes Get Teensiest Corks. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 28, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/05/060510191241.htm
University of Florida. "World's Tiniest Test Tubes Get Teensiest Corks." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/05/060510191241.htm (accessed July 28, 2014).

Share This




More Matter & Energy News

Monday, July 28, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Europe's Highest Train Turns 80 in French Pyrenees

Europe's Highest Train Turns 80 in French Pyrenees

AFP (July 25, 2014) — Europe's highest train, the little train of Artouste in the French Pyrenees, celebrates its 80th birthday. Duration: 01:05 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
TSA Administrator on Politics and Flight Bans

TSA Administrator on Politics and Flight Bans

AP (July 24, 2014) — TSA administrator, John Pistole's took part in the Aspen Security Forum 2014, where he answered questions on lifting of the ban on flights into Israel's Tel Aviv airport and whether politics played a role in lifting the ban. (July 24) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Creative Makeovers for Ugly Cellphone Towers

Creative Makeovers for Ugly Cellphone Towers

AP (July 24, 2014) — Mobile phone companies and communities across the country are going to new lengths to disguise those unsightly cellphone towers. From a church bell tower to a flagpole, even a pencil, some towers are trying to make a point. (July 24) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Algonquin Power Goes Activist on Its Target Gas Natural

Algonquin Power Goes Activist on Its Target Gas Natural

TheStreet (July 23, 2014) — When The Deal's Amanda Levin exclusively reported that Gas Natural had been talking to potential suitors, the Ohio company responded with a flat denial, claiming its board had not talked to anyone about a possible sale. Lo and behold, Canadian utility Algonquin Power and Utilities not only had approached the company, but it did it three times. Its last offer was for $13 per share as Gas Natural's was trading at a 60-day moving average of about $12.50 per share. Now Algonquin, which has a 4.9% stake in Gas Natural, has taken its case to shareholders, calling on them to back its proposals or, possibly, a change in the target's board. Video provided by TheStreet
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins