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How Did Cactuses Evolve?

Date:
May 15, 2006
Source:
University of Chicago Press Journals
Summary:
In a groundbreaking new study in the June issue of American Naturalist, Erika J. Edwards (Yale University and University of California, Santa Barbara) and Michael J. Donoghue (Yale University) explore how leafy, "normal" plants evolved into the leafless succulent cactus.
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Neoraimondia herzogiana, a member of the leafless, stem-succulent Cactoideae, growing in central Bolivia.
Credit: E.J. Edwards

In a groundbreaking new study in the June issue of American Naturalist, Erika J. Edwards (Yale University and University of California, Santa Barbara) and Michael J. Donoghue (Yale University) explore how leafy, "normal" plants evolved into the leafless succulent cactus.

"The cactus form is often heralded as a striking example of the tight relationship between form and function in plants," write the authors. "A succulent, long-lived photosynthetic system allows cacti to survive periods of extreme drought while maintaining well-hydrated tissues."

Recent molecular phylogenetic work has confirmed that Pereskia, a genus that consists of 17 species of leafy shrubs and trees, is where the earliest cactus lineages began. Using field studies and environmental modeling, Edwards and Donoghue found that the Pereskia species already showed water use patterns that are similar to the leafless, stem-succulent cacti.

"[Our] analyses suggest that several key elements of cactus ecological function were established prior to the evolution of the cactus life form," explain the authors. "Such a sequence may be common in evolution, but it has rarely been documented as few studies have incorporated physiological, ecological, anatomical, and phylogenetic data."

Founded in 1867, The American Naturalist is one of the world's most renowned, peer-reviewed publications in ecology, evolution, and population and integrative biology research. AN emphasizes sophisticated methodologies and innovative theoretical syntheses--all in an effort to advance the knowledge of organic evolution and other broad biological principles.

Erika J. Edwards and Michael J. Donoghue. "Pereskia and the origin of the cactus life form," The American Naturalist 167:6.


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University of Chicago Press Journals. "How Did Cactuses Evolve?." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 15 May 2006. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/05/060515000551.htm>.
University of Chicago Press Journals. (2006, May 15). How Did Cactuses Evolve?. ScienceDaily. Retrieved August 30, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/05/060515000551.htm
University of Chicago Press Journals. "How Did Cactuses Evolve?." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/05/060515000551.htm (accessed August 30, 2015).

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