Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Sugary Drinks, Not Fruit Juice, May Be Linked To Insulin Resistance

Date:
September 6, 2007
Source:
Tufts University, Health Sciences
Summary:
Consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks, not including 100 percent fruit juice, may be associated with insulin resistance, even in otherwise healthy adults, according to nutritional experts.

Steady increases in consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages over the last several decades, as well as rates of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, led nutritional epidemiologists at the Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging (USDA HNRCA) at Tufts University and colleagues to explore the relationship between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and insulin resistance, a precursor to Type 2 diabetes.

Related Articles


Their findings suggest that higher consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks, but not 100 percent fruit juice, may be associated with insulin resistance, even in otherwise healthy adults.

"Study participants who consumed two or more sugar-sweetened beverages per day had significantly higher fasting blood levels of insulin as compared to participants who did not report consuming any such beverages, regardless of age, sex, weight, smoking status, or other dietary habits," says senior author Paul Jacques, DSc, director of the Nutritional Epidemiology Program at the USDA HNRCA and professor at the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University. "Higher fasting levels of insulin mean these study participants are more at risk for developing Type 2 diabetes. In contrast," he says, "consumption of 100 percent fruit juice was not significantly related to any of our measures of insulin resistance."

Study participants were 2,500 healthy men and women in the Framingham Offspring Study, a community-based study of cardiovascular disease among offspring of people in the original Framingham Heart Study. Participants reported their usual dietary intake for the previous year, which researchers used to determine average intakes of sugar-sweetened drinks (regular and caffeine-free colas and other carbonated beverages containing sugar), diet soft drinks (low-calorie colas with and without caffeine and other low-calorie carbonated beverages), and fruit juice (e.g., apple juice or apple cider, orange juice, and grapefruit juice). One serving of a sugar-sweetened drink or diet soda was considered equivalent to 12 fluid ounces, or a regular-sized can of soda. One serving of fruit juice was considered equivalent to six fluid ounces.

The researchers obtained blood samples from participants who fasted for at least eight hours, and measured the participants' blood levels of insulin as well as glucose. High fasting glucose levels, like high fasting insulin levels, are a pre-cursor to Type 2 diabetes. "Unlike fasting insulin levels, fasting glucose levels were not significantly different between those who consumed sugar-sweetened drinks and those who did not," says Jacques, "However, participants consuming two or more daily servings of 100 percent fruit juice had modestly lower fasting glucose levels, compared with those who did not consume fruit juice." Although this observation might be due to the additional nutrients or other phytochemicals found in the juices, Jacques notes this also may be a consequence of the healthier lifestyle and dietary habits of fruit juice consumers. They were less likely to smoke than non-consumers, and consumed diets relatively lower in saturated fat and higher in total fiber.

Despite these results, Nicola McKeown, PhD, corresponding author and scientist in the Nutritional Epidemiology Program at the USDA HNRCA, does not advise increasing consumption of fruit juice. "While 100 percent fruit juice can be a healthful beverage, too much fruit juice can add excess calories and sugar to the diet. Whole fruit is often a better choice."

Jacques and McKeown also caution that their results cannot be used to determine cause-and-effect relationships among caloric and non-caloric sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and insulin resistance. "It could be that people who drink sugar-sweetened beverages have other unhealthy behaviors that we did not account for," says McKeown. "Sugar-sweetened drink consumption may prove to be an important determinant of insulin resistance, but more long-term studies of diverse populations that incorporate the use of more direct measures of insulin resistance are needed." In the meantime, the researchers suggest that people continue to follow the recommendations in the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, increasing consumption of water while limiting intake of calorically sweetened, nutrient-poor beverages.

This study, published in the September issue of The Journal of Nutrition, was supported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service; the Framingham Heart Study of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health; and individual awards from the American Diabetes Association and the American Heart Association.

Reference: Yoshida M, McKeown NM, Rogers G, Meigs JB, Saltzman E, D'Agostino R, Jacques PF. Journal of Nutrition. 2007 (September); 137:2121-2127. "Surrogate Markers of Insulin Resistance are Associated with Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Drinks and Fruit Juice in Middle and Older-Aged Adults."


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Tufts University, Health Sciences. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

Tufts University, Health Sciences. "Sugary Drinks, Not Fruit Juice, May Be Linked To Insulin Resistance." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 6 September 2007. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/09/070905095319.htm>.
Tufts University, Health Sciences. (2007, September 6). Sugary Drinks, Not Fruit Juice, May Be Linked To Insulin Resistance. ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 26, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/09/070905095319.htm
Tufts University, Health Sciences. "Sugary Drinks, Not Fruit Juice, May Be Linked To Insulin Resistance." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/09/070905095319.htm (accessed December 26, 2014).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Health & Medicine News

Friday, December 26, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Healthier Lifestyles Could Prevent 4 In 10 Cancer Cases

Healthier Lifestyles Could Prevent 4 In 10 Cancer Cases

Newsy (Dec. 26, 2014) If patients had led healthier lifestyles, Cancer Research UK found about 40 percent of cancer cases could have been prevented. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
FDA Issues New Warning About Pure Caffeine Powder Usage

FDA Issues New Warning About Pure Caffeine Powder Usage

Newsy (Dec. 24, 2014) The FDA cites two deaths this year linked to pure caffeine powder as warnings of the potentially fatal substance. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Alarming CDC Lab Report Reveals Ebola Sample Mix-Up

Alarming CDC Lab Report Reveals Ebola Sample Mix-Up

Newsy (Dec. 24, 2014) The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released a report claiming a lab tech in Atlanta might have been exposed to the Ebola virus. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
French General Physicians Begin Strike, ER Doctors Back to Work

French General Physicians Begin Strike, ER Doctors Back to Work

AFP (Dec. 23, 2014) French doctors went on strike Tuesday in protest at an upcoming health bill. Emergency room doctors on the other end are returning to work after reaching an historic agreement. Duration: 01:17 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins