Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Tangled Web Of The Insect, Plant And Parasite Arms Race

Date:
November 3, 2007
Source:
BioMed Central
Summary:
New insights have been made into the evolutionary relationship between plant-dwelling insects and their parasites. Researchers shed light on how sawflies evolved to escape their parasites and gain themselves an 'enemy-free space' for millions of years.

New insights into the evolutionary relationship between plant-dwelling insects and their parasites are revealed in the online open access journal BMC Biology. Researchers shed light on how sawflies evolved to escape their parasites and gain themselves an 'enemy-free space' for millions of years.

Tommi Nyman of the University of Joensuu in Finland together with colleagues from Sweden and Germany uncovered a food web involving willow trees, sawflies, and the parasites feeding on sawfly larvae. Sawflies (a group of insects related to bees and wasps) lay their larvae in willows creating galls, which are protruding growths of plant tissue. Nyman's group used data from galls collected from willows over an 18-year period. They classified 43 sawfly species using genetic analysis and assessed the degree of parasitism to which these insects had been subjected by 72 different parasites.

Their statistical analysis showed that parasitism promotes the insects' ecological divergence in a co-evolutionary arms race. The sawflies develop new gall-types and, in doing so, can escape the attentions of the parasites without having to switch host plant. Some parasites, however, have in turn adapted to the divergence in gall-types, driving further speciation. These processes partly explain the unusual diversity of herbivorous insects and their parasitoids.

This study is the first time that key co-evolutionary hypotheses such as the classic Escape-And-Radiate (EAR) hypothesis have been tested in a phylogenetic framework. EAR suggests that hyper diverse communities result from co-evolutionary arms races featuring cycles of enemy escape, radiation, and colonization by new enemy lineages. The results show that the EAR hypothesis is too simplistic to be applied to complex species-rich food webs.

"Our results indicate that niche-dependent parasitism is a major force promoting ecological divergence in herbivorous insects," says Nyman. "Diversification seems to be spurred by a continuous stepwise process, in which ecological and phenotypic shifts in prey lineages are followed by a lagged evolutionary response by some of the associated enemies."

Journal article: Tommi Nyman, Folmer Bokma and Jens-Peter Kopelke "Reciprocal diversification in a complex plant-herbivore-parasitoid food web" BMC Biology (in press)


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by BioMed Central. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

BioMed Central. "Tangled Web Of The Insect, Plant And Parasite Arms Race." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 3 November 2007. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/11/071101085033.htm>.
BioMed Central. (2007, November 3). Tangled Web Of The Insect, Plant And Parasite Arms Race. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 2, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/11/071101085033.htm
BioMed Central. "Tangled Web Of The Insect, Plant And Parasite Arms Race." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/11/071101085033.htm (accessed September 2, 2014).

Share This




More Plants & Animals News

Tuesday, September 2, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

U.N. Says Ebola Travel Restrictions Will Cause Food Shortage

U.N. Says Ebola Travel Restrictions Will Cause Food Shortage

Newsy (Sep. 2, 2014) — The U.N. says the problem is two-fold — quarantine zones and travel restrictions are limiting the movement of both people and food. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Sharks Off the Menu and on the Tourist Trail in Palau

Sharks Off the Menu and on the Tourist Trail in Palau

AFP (Sep. 2, 2014) — Tourists in Palau clamour to dive with sharks thanks to a pioneering conservation initiative -- as the island nation plans to completely ban commercial fishing in its vast ocean territory. 01:15 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
We've Got Mites Living In Our Faces And So Do You

We've Got Mites Living In Our Faces And So Do You

Newsy (Aug. 30, 2014) — A new study suggests 100 percent of adult humans (those over 18 years of age) have Demodex mites living in their faces. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Coffee Then Napping: The (New) Key To Alertness

Coffee Then Napping: The (New) Key To Alertness

Newsy (Aug. 30, 2014) — Researchers say having a cup of coffee then taking a nap is more effective than a nap or coffee alone. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins