Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Out-of-whack Protein May Boost Parkinson's Disease

Date:
February 27, 2008
Source:
University of Florida
Summary:
Scientists studying rats induced to display a form of Parkinson's disease discovered that a protein commonly found in brain cells can be toxic if -- at one pinpoint location in its amino acid structure -- it lacks a chemical compound called a phosphate. The finding provides insight into the fundamentals of Parkinson's disease and the role of an abundant yet mysterious brain protein known as alpha-synuclein.

A single change in a protein may play a role in whether someone develops Parkinson's disease, say University of Florida Genetics Institute researchers writing in a recent issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Related Articles


Scientists studying rats induced to display a form of Parkinson's disease discovered that a protein commonly found in brain cells can be toxic if -- at one pinpoint location in its amino acid structure -- it lacks a chemical compound called a phosphate.

When scientists used gene therapy to simulate a phosphate at this critical position, the rats' brain cells didn't develop the Parkinson-like pathology that would normally occur.

The finding provides new insight into the fundamentals of Parkinson's disease and the role of an abundant yet mysterious brain protein known as alpha-synuclein, which is believed to help brain cells communicate but may have a more sinister role in the development of neurological diseases.

"We have another potential target for therapy, but there is a great deal left to discover," said Nicholas Muzyczka, Ph.D., a professor of molecular genetics and microbiology in the College of Medicine and an eminent scholar with the UF Genetics Institute. "This is one more piece of information about what might be causing the toxicity in Parkinson's disease, and it gives us a little more to go on about what alpha-synuclein does in the brain."

Generally located at the synapses of nerve cells, alpha-synuclein is believed to aid in brain function, possibly by helping cells communicate with one another by controlling the release of neurotransmitters such as dopamine.

Mutations of alpha-synuclein may cause a rare, inherited form of Parkinson's, and the protein has been found to be the major component of Lewy bodies, which are abnormal clusters of protein in the brain cells of patients with Parkinson's disease.

The National Parkinson Foundation estimates 1.5 million Americans currently have Parkinson's disease and about 60,000 new cases are diagnosed each year. It is caused by the death or impairment of certain nerve cells in a part of the brain called the substantia nigra. When these cells die, the body is deprived of dopamine, a neurotransmitter vital for movement.

"We know of several enzymes that can cause phosphorylation in the proper position of the alpha-synuclein protein," said Oleg Gorbatyuk, Ph.D., an assistant professor of molecular genetics and microbiology. "Increasing their expression in brains afflicted with Parkinson's disease could possibly provide a gene therapy approach to the disease."

In experiments described in the Jan. 15 issue of PNAS, UF researchers used gene transfer to enhance the production of three versions of alpha-synuclein in the substantia nigra region on one side of the rats' brains. The other side was not treated, for comparison purposes.

Of the types of alpha-synuclein, the one that simulated phosphorylation at position 129 of the protein was nontoxic. But the other versions of the protein all caused significant loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra.

"Adding a phosphate group is about the smallest thing that can possibly happen in biology," said Mark R. Cookson, an investigator in the Cell Biology and Gene Expression Unit of the National Institute on Aging who was not involved in the research. "But this relatively minor, innocuous change can switch everything around from being a big problem to being no problem. This research really gives us an idea of some things going on in inherited cases of Parkinson's disease, and if we use that genetic information as a handle to get into the common disease, it is possible to take this from genetics to a drug discovery program."


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of Florida. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

University of Florida. "Out-of-whack Protein May Boost Parkinson's Disease." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 27 February 2008. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/02/080226135418.htm>.
University of Florida. (2008, February 27). Out-of-whack Protein May Boost Parkinson's Disease. ScienceDaily. Retrieved February 28, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/02/080226135418.htm
University of Florida. "Out-of-whack Protein May Boost Parkinson's Disease." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/02/080226135418.htm (accessed February 28, 2015).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Health & Medicine News

Saturday, February 28, 2015

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Could a $34 Smartphone Device Improve HIV Diagnosis in Africa?

Could a $34 Smartphone Device Improve HIV Diagnosis in Africa?

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Feb. 27, 2015) A dongle that plugs into a Smartphone mimics a lab-based blood test for HIV and syphilis and can detect the diseases in 15 minutes, say researchers. Tara Cleary reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Doctor Says Head Transplants Possible Within Two Years

Doctor Says Head Transplants Possible Within Two Years

Buzz60 (Feb. 27, 2015) An Italian doctor is saying he could stick someone&apos;s head onto someone else&apos;s body. Patrick Jones (@Patrick_E_Jones) reports. Video provided by Buzz60
Powered by NewsLook.com
How Your Dentist Could Help Screen You For Diabetes

How Your Dentist Could Help Screen You For Diabetes

Newsy (Feb. 27, 2015) A new study from researchers at New York University suggests dentists could soon use blood samples taken from patients&apos; mouths to test for diabetes. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
The Best Tips to Makeover Your Health

The Best Tips to Makeover Your Health

Buzz60 (Feb. 27, 2015) If you&apos;re looking to boost your health this season, there are a few quick and easy steps to prompt you for success. Krystin Goodwin (@Krystingoodwin) has the best tips to give your health a makeover this spring! Video provided by Buzz60
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins