Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Olfactory Bulb Glial Cell Transplant Preserves Muscles In Paraplegic Rats

Date:
October 3, 2008
Source:
Madrimasd
Summary:
Researchers have analysed the degree of preservation in the skeletal muscles of paraplegic rats treated with a transplant of Olfactory bulb glial cells (OBG). Pioneering research established that while nerve cells from the peripheral nervous system (PNS) have the capacity to repair themselves, the same does not apply to adult brain cells and spinal cord cells from the central nervous system (CNS). In spite of the global effect of OBG transplants, only 3 of the 9 treated animals (and none of the untreated) showed near normal muscle characteristics.

Researchers from the “Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa” (CSIC-UAM), Córdoba University and the “Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia” (CSIC) have analysed the degree of preservation in the skeletal muscles of paraplegic rats treated with a transplant of Olfactory bulb glial cells (OBG).

Spinal chord injuries represent a serious and irreversible handicap that is sadly frequent in our society. Because of the permanent break in the nervous connections between the brain and the organs and muscles, such injuries impair their movement inducing atrophy and deterioration while they disturb organic functions.

The pioneering studies carried out by Santiago Ramón y Cajal established that while nerve cells from the peripheral nervous system (PNS) have the capacity to repair themselves, the same does not apply to adult brain cells and spinal cord cells from the central nervous system (CNS). The difference is not in the nerve cells themselves but in the cellular enviroment that gives them support - the glial cells.

These cells are involved in the transmision of nerve impulses and produce myelin. Schwann cells (a variety of glial cell) in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) provide factors that contribute to the regeneration of the axons whereas the glia of the CNS do not have such a nurturing role. For this reason, one of the strategic experimental approaches for the regeneration of spinal chord neurons consists in altering their cellular enviroment by introducing cells that create a supportive environment for axon regeneration in the damaged area. The glial cells that surround the axons in the olfactory bulb (OBG) are a promising example because they promote axon regeneration in the CNS.

In an experiment using paraplegic rats, it was found that 8 months after a transplant treatment in a transected spinal chord using OBS, axon regeneration was taking place and sensorial and motor recovery was perceived in behavioural tests. The investigation recently published in the Journal of Physiology with the collaboration of scientists from the “Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa” (CSIC-UAM), Córdoba University, and the “Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia” (CSIC), has analysed for the first time the muscular characteristics of paraplegic animals treated with an OBG transplant and compared them with those of untreated paraplegic animals and healthy control animals.

The study exhibits a high correlation between the functional capability shown by the animals in behavioural tests and some biochemical parameters. The parameters measured differentiate the muscular characteristics of paraplegic and healthy animals and they established that animals treated with the transplant had more similar characteristics to the healthy animals than the untreated paraplegic animals. In spite of the global effect of OBG transplants, only 3 of the 9 treated animals (and none of the untreated) showed near normal muscle characteristics.

This could imply that maintaining the muscular phenotype might rely on the interaction between the transplanted cells and other factors. One the possible factors that affect the result could be the physical exercise to which the animals were subjected. This could be significant since it is well known that rehabilitation treatment aids regenerative therapies.

Both voluntary and assisted exercise stimulates synaptic plasticity and the regenerative capabilities of neurons of the CNS as well as re-establishes adequate trophic factors. The role of the OBG in establishing a nurturing cellular environment for axon regeneration could induce adaptation in the local spinal circuits that favours the conservation of muscular properties and automatic contractions even while the damaged neural pathways are not fully recovered.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Madrimasd. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Negredo et al. Slow- and fast-twitch rat hind limb skeletal muscle phenotypes 8 months after spinal cord transection and olfactory ensheathing glia transplantation. The Journal of Physiology, 2008; 586 (10): 2593 DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2007.149120

Cite This Page:

Madrimasd. "Olfactory Bulb Glial Cell Transplant Preserves Muscles In Paraplegic Rats." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 3 October 2008. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/09/080924085147.htm>.
Madrimasd. (2008, October 3). Olfactory Bulb Glial Cell Transplant Preserves Muscles In Paraplegic Rats. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 21, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/09/080924085147.htm
Madrimasd. "Olfactory Bulb Glial Cell Transplant Preserves Muscles In Paraplegic Rats." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/09/080924085147.htm (accessed October 21, 2014).

Share This



More Health & Medicine News

Tuesday, October 21, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

CDC Revamps Ebola Guidelines After Criticism

CDC Revamps Ebola Guidelines After Criticism

Newsy (Oct. 21, 2014) — The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have issued new protocols for healthcare workers interacting with Ebola patients. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
First-Of-Its-Kind Treatment Gives Man Ability To Walk Again

First-Of-Its-Kind Treatment Gives Man Ability To Walk Again

Newsy (Oct. 21, 2014) — A medical team has for the first time given a man the ability to walk again after transplanting cells from his brain onto his severed spinal cord. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
CDC Issues New Ebola Guidelines for Health Workers

CDC Issues New Ebola Guidelines for Health Workers

Reuters - US Online Video (Oct. 21, 2014) — The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has set up new guidelines for health workers taking care of patients infected with Ebola. Linda So reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
'Cadaver Dog' Sniffs out Human Remains

'Cadaver Dog' Sniffs out Human Remains

AP (Oct. 21, 2014) — Where's a body buried? Buster's nose can often tell you. He's a cadaver dog, specially trained to find human remains and increasingly being used by law enforcement and accepted in courts. These dogs are helping solve even decades-old mysteries. (Oct. 21) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories

 

Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins