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New Knowledge About Thermoelectric Materials Could Give Better Energy Efficiency

Date:
October 14, 2008
Source:
University of Copenhagen
Summary:
New research could be used to develop motors that are more fuel-efficient and provide for more environmentally friendly cooling methods. The new data describes properties of thermoelectric materials.

The crystal structure of a 'nano-cage'. Where it beforehand was believed that the unique properties of the materials solely could be ascribed to the movements of the heavy 'guest'-atoms in the cages, it has now been shown that the entire atomic scale movements of the cage should be given credit
Credit: Image courtesy of University of Copenhagen

Researchers at the University of Εrhus, Risψ-DTU and the University of Copenhagen stand jointly behind new data, just published in Nature Materials, that describes properties of thermoelectric materials, which is of great importance for their practical application.

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In the long term the new knowledge can be used to develop motors that are more fuel-efficient and for more environmentally friendly cooling methods.  

Thermoelectric materials can be assembled into units, which can transform the thermal difference to electrical energy or vice versa - electrical current to cooling. An effective utilization requires however that the material supplies a high voltage and has good electrical, but low thermal conductivity.

"The new knowledge explains exactly why some thermoelectric materials can have the desired low thermal conductivity without degrading the electrical properties. This can be crucial for the conversion of wasted heat, for example, from vehicle exhaust emissions. Leading car manufacturers are now working to develop this possibility and the first models are close to production. The technology is expected to give the cars considerably improved fuel economy," explains Bo B. Iversen, Professor at iNANO at the University of Εrhus.

The new knowledge can also contribute to the development of new cooling methods, so that one avoids the most common, but very environmentally damaging greenhouse gas (R-134a). All of which is a gain for the environment.

In the Nature Materials article the researchers have studied one of the most promising thermoelectric materials in the group of clathrates, which create crystals full of ‘nano-cages'.

"By placing a heavy atom in each nano-cage, we can reduce the crystals' ability to conduct heat. Until now we thought that it was the heavy atoms random movements in the cages that were the cause of the poor thermal conductivity, but this has been shown to not be true," explains Asger B. Abrahamsen, senior scientist at Risψ-DTU.

The researchers have used the technique of neutron scattering, which gives them opportunity to look into the material and see the atoms' movements.

"Our data shows that, it is rather the atoms' shared pattern of movement that determines the properties of these thermoelectric materials. A discovery that will be significant for the design of new materials that utilize energy even better," explains Kim Lefmann, associate professor at the Nano-Science Center, the Niels Bohr Institute at the University of Copenhagen.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of Copenhagen. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

University of Copenhagen. "New Knowledge About Thermoelectric Materials Could Give Better Energy Efficiency." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 14 October 2008. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/10/081007102841.htm>.
University of Copenhagen. (2008, October 14). New Knowledge About Thermoelectric Materials Could Give Better Energy Efficiency. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 31, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/10/081007102841.htm
University of Copenhagen. "New Knowledge About Thermoelectric Materials Could Give Better Energy Efficiency." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/10/081007102841.htm (accessed October 31, 2014).

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