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Mutualism By Natural Selection: Imitation Is Not Just Flattery For Amazon Butterfly Species

Date:
December 8, 2008
Source:
Public Library of Science
Summary:
Many studies of evolution focus on the benefits to the individual of competing successfully -- those who survive produce the most offspring, in Darwin's classic 'survival of the fittest'. But how does this translate to the evolution of species? A new article reviews an aspect of the natural world that, like survival of the fittest individual, is explained by natural selection: namely, mutualism -- an interaction between species that has benefits for both. The work shows that some species of butterfly that live alongside one another have evolved in ways that, surprisingly, benefit both species.

Phylogeny of the Ithomiine Species of the Community: The eight mimetic patterns are shown with their names and relative abundance in the community.
Credit: From: Mutualistic Interactions Drive Ecological Niche Convergence in a Diverse Butterfly Community. Elias M, Gompert Z, Jiggins C, Willmott K. PLoS Biology Vol. 6, No. 12, e300 doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060300

Many studies of evolution focus on the benefits to the individual of competing successfully – those who survive produce the most offspring, in Darwin's classic 'survival of the fittest'. But how does this translate to the evolution of species?

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A new article considers an aspect of the natural world that, like survival of the fittest individual, is explained by natural selection: namely, mutualism -- an interaction between species that has benefits for both. The work shows that some species of butterfly that live alongside one another have evolved in ways that, surprisingly, benefit both species.

Researchers from the University of Edinburgh, the University of Cambridge, the University of Wyoming and the Florida Museum of Natural History studied the behaviour of several species of colourful butterfly in the Amazon jungle. It is often theorised that similar species living in the same environment would best succeed by evolving different preferences and behaviours – to minimise the amount that they have to share resources and compete for survival.

However, this is not always the case. The researchers show that butterfly species that have evolved similar wing patterns – which act as a warning to predators that they are poisonous – are often not evolutionarily close to each other. Thus the similarity is not due to shared ancestry but is an evolutionary adaptation. The similar pattern benefits both species, as predators will only need to learn once to avoid the signal – 'learn', in this context, being a euphemism for eating a poisonous butterfly.

The researchers found that species with similar warning patterns have evolved to live in the same territory – flying at the same height and preferring the same forest type - in order to maximise the benefits of their similar appearance. The new paper shows that issues other than pure competition, such as protection from predators, can play an important role in evolution.

Marianne Elias, of the University of Edinburgh's School of Biological Sciences, who led the research, said: "We knew that unrelated animals often develop a similar appearance to reinforce the warning to other animals not to eat them, but until now we didn't know that they would live alongside each other, reinforcing this message to predators to stay away."


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Public Library of Science. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Elias et al. Mutualistic Interactions Drive Ecological Niche Convergence in a Diverse Butterfly Community. PLoS Biology, 2008; 6 (12): e300 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0060300

Cite This Page:

Public Library of Science. "Mutualism By Natural Selection: Imitation Is Not Just Flattery For Amazon Butterfly Species." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 8 December 2008. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/12/081201233452.htm>.
Public Library of Science. (2008, December 8). Mutualism By Natural Selection: Imitation Is Not Just Flattery For Amazon Butterfly Species. ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 28, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/12/081201233452.htm
Public Library of Science. "Mutualism By Natural Selection: Imitation Is Not Just Flattery For Amazon Butterfly Species." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/12/081201233452.htm (accessed March 28, 2015).

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