In the Baltic Sea region, there are considerable deficiencies in the observation and monitoring of the biological effects of harmful substances in comparison to many other maritime regions. In particular, there is little use of so-called biomarkers, early warning signs at a molecular and cell level.
As a part of the joint European BONUS research programme, methods of measuring and observing the biological effects of harmful substances are now being developed. This project led by Finnish researchers is also aiming to promote the introduction of such methods into the monitoring programmes and assessments of the state of the Baltic Sea.
“The introduction of new methods significantly advances the observation of the environmental load caused by human activity and the understanding of its effects on the eco-system of the Baltic Sea,” says the coordinator of the project, Kari K. Lehtonen, Senior Scientist at the Marine Centre of the Finnish Environment Centre. Sixteen research institutes from all the Baltic Sea countries are participating in the study.
The research is using bio-marker methods to study the effects of harmful substances on the fish, shellfish and crustacean species in the different parts of the Baltic Sea maritime region. Another research focus is how the changes at molecular and cell level caused by chemicals appear at other biological levels, such as in human health and reproduction and in the population size and structure of different species. “The idea is to develop for the different areas of the Baltic Sea a multi-level range of methods for observing and describing environmental stress caused by harmful substances. In these methods, bio-markers in particular will act as sensitive diagnostic tools,” says Lehtonen.
Based on the project results and existing research material, recommendations and guidelines will be prepared for a new strategy concerning the uniform chemical-biological monitoring of harmful substances. Methods aimed at the assessment of the state of health of the marine eco-system will also be developed. In addition to the levels and effects of harmful substances, these methods will also take into account other variables such as biodiversity and the structures of biotic communities.
Research funding organisations from the nine Baltic Sea nations are behind the BONUS programme, which was launched at the beginning of this year. The research is also being funded by the EU Commission. The Finnish funding organisation is the Academy of Finland.
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