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Amphibians May Develop Immunity To Fatal Fungus

Date:
April 10, 2009
Source:
American Institute of Biological Sciences
Summary:
A fungus threatens amphibians all over the globe and has contributed to extinctions. A consideration of amphibian immune responses to the fungus suggests that acquired as well as innate immunity play a role, and preliminary experimental results support this conclusion. Understanding the genetics of both types of immunity could help predict the spread of Bd and possibly support efforts to counter it.
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Red-eyed tree frog. Amphibian populations are declining worldwide, principally because of the spread of the fungal disease chytridiomycosis. Researchers know that some amphibian populations and species are innately more susceptible to the disease than others.
Credit: iStockphoto/Mark Kostich

Amphibian populations are declining worldwide, principally because of the spread of the fungal disease chytridiomycosis. Researchers know that some amphibian populations and species are innately more susceptible to the disease than others.

Recent preliminary evidence, described in the April issue of BioScience, suggests also that individual amphibians can sometimes develop resistance to chytridiomycosis, which is caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Jonathan Q. Richmond, of the US Geological Survey, and three coauthors argue that researchers should broaden their studies of chytridiomycosis to include so-called acquired immunity, because this might improve predictive models of Bd's spread and so suggest ways to protect threatened frog and toad populations.

Richmond and colleagues discuss experimental studies indicating that two species of New Zealand frogs infected with Bd but treated with the antimicrobial drug chloramphenicol were later resistant to reinfection with the fungus. Other studies indicate that North American toads that survived after being first exposed to Bd in dry conditions survived longer when reinfected in wet conditions than did toads that were exposed to Bd in wet conditions.

Richmond and colleagues emphasize that innate immunity has to be activated in an animal before acquired immunity can develop. They point to several key immune-system components—notably, toll-like receptors and major histocompatibility complex molecules—that most likely play a role in bridging the innate and the acquired immune systems, and urge researchers to undertake collaborative studies of the genetics of how these systems interact as Bd spreads.


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The above post is reprinted from materials provided by American Institute of Biological Sciences. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


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American Institute of Biological Sciences. "Amphibians May Develop Immunity To Fatal Fungus." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 10 April 2009. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/04/090401101745.htm>.
American Institute of Biological Sciences. (2009, April 10). Amphibians May Develop Immunity To Fatal Fungus. ScienceDaily. Retrieved August 31, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/04/090401101745.htm
American Institute of Biological Sciences. "Amphibians May Develop Immunity To Fatal Fungus." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/04/090401101745.htm (accessed August 31, 2015).

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