Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Susceptibility for caries, gum disease found in genes

Date:
May 10, 2010
Source:
University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences
Summary:
Certain genetic variations may be linked to higher rates of tooth decay and aggressive periodontitis, according to two new studies.

Certain genetic variations may be linked to higher rates of tooth decay and aggressive periodontitis, according to two recently published papers by researchers at the University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine and their collaborators.

Alexandre R. Vieira, D.D. S., Ph.D., senior author of both papers and an assistant professor of oral biology, and his colleagues at the School of Dental Medicine found that the rate of dental caries was influenced by individual variations, or polymorphisms, in a gene called beta defensin 1(DEFB1), which plays a key role in the first-line immune response against invading germs. The findings are available online in the Journal of Dental Research.

"We were able to use data gathered from our Dental Registry and DNA Repository, the only one of its kind in the world, to see if certain polymorphisms were associated with the development of caries," Dr. Vieira said. "This could help us find new ways to treat people who are particularly susceptible to tooth decay, a problem that afflicts millions of Americans."

For the study, the researchers analyzed nearly 300 anonymous dental records and accompanying saliva samples from the registry, assigning each case a DMFT score based on the presence of decayed teeth, missing teeth due to caries, and tooth fillings, as well as a DMFS score, based on decayed teeth, missing teeth, and filled surface of a tooth. In general, individuals with fewer caries have lower DMFT and DMFS scores.

Saliva samples contained one of three variants, dubbed G-20A, G-52A and C-44G, of the DEFB1 gene. Individuals who carried a G-20A copy had DMFT and DMFS scores that were five-times higher than for people who had other variants. The G-52A polymorphism was associated with lower DMFT scores.

"It's possible that these variations lead to differences in beta defensin's ability to inhibit bacterial colonization," Dr. Vieira said. "In the future, we might be able to test for these polymorphisms as clinical markers for caries risk."

In a second paper, published in PLoS ONE, Dr. Vieira, colleagues at Pitt and collaborators in Brazil studied saliva samples of 389 people in 55 families to look for genetic links to aggressive periodontitis, which is rapid and severe destruction of the gums and bone that starts at a young age and is thought to be more common in Africans and those of African descent. Brazil's population is composed primarily of Caucasians of Portuguese ancestry, Africans and native Indians.

They found hints of an association between the disease and the FAM5C gene. While further testing did not find any mutations or polymorphisms that bore out a relationship, other experiments showed elevated levels of FAM5C expression, or activation, in areas of diseased periodontal tissue compared to healthy tissue.

"The FAM5C gene recently was implicated in cardiovascular disease, in which inflammation plays a role, just as in periodontitis," Dr. Vieira said. "More research is needed to see if variation in the gene is associated with different activity profiles."

Ayla Ozturk, D.D.S., Ph.D., and Pouran Famili, D.D.S., Ph.D., Pitt School of Dental Medicine, co-authored the Journal of Dental Research paper, which was funded by the School of Dental Medicine.

Co-authors of the PLoS ONE paper included researchers at Pitt, the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State University, Sao Paulo University and other universities in Brazil. The study was funded by the Pitt School of Dental Medicine and Brazilian funding agencies.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal References:

  1. A. Ozturk, P. Famili, A. R. Vieira. The Antimicrobial Peptide DEFB1 is Associated with Caries. Journal of Dental Research, 2010; DOI: 10.1177/0022034510364491
  2. Flavia M. Carvalho, Eduardo M. B. Tinoco, Kathleen Deeley, Poliana M. Duarte, Marcelo Faveri, Marcelo R. Marques, Adriana C. Mendonηa, Xiaojing Wang, Karen Cuenco, Renato Menezes, Gustavo P. Garlet, Alexandre R. Vieira, Darren P. Martin. FAM5C Contributes to Aggressive Periodontitis. PLoS ONE, 2010; 5 (4): e10053 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010053

Cite This Page:

University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences. "Susceptibility for caries, gum disease found in genes." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 10 May 2010. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/04/100415110037.htm>.
University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences. (2010, May 10). Susceptibility for caries, gum disease found in genes. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 17, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/04/100415110037.htm
University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences. "Susceptibility for caries, gum disease found in genes." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/04/100415110037.htm (accessed September 17, 2014).

Share This



More Health & Medicine News

Wednesday, September 17, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

President To Send 3,000 Military Personnel To Fight Ebola

President To Send 3,000 Military Personnel To Fight Ebola

Newsy (Sep. 16, 2014) — President Obama is expected to send 3,000 troops to West Africa as part of the effort to contain Ebola's spread. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Obama Orders Military Response to Ebola

Obama Orders Military Response to Ebola

AP (Sep. 16, 2014) — Calling the Ebola outbreak in West Africa a potential threat to global security, President Barack Obama is ordering 3,000 U.S. military personnel to the stricken region amid worries that the outbreak is spiraling out of control. (Sept. 16) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
UN: 20,000 Could Be Infected With Ebola by Year End

UN: 20,000 Could Be Infected With Ebola by Year End

AFP (Sep. 16, 2014) — Nearly $1.0 billion dollars is needed to fight the Ebola outbreak raging in west Africa, the United Nations say, warning that 20,000 could be infected by year end. Duration: 00:40 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Obama: Ebola Outbreak Threat to Global Security

Obama: Ebola Outbreak Threat to Global Security

AP (Sep. 16, 2014) — President Obama is ordering U.S. military personnel to West Africa to deal with the Ebola outbreak, which is he calls a potential threat to global security. (Sept. 16) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

    Technology News



    Save/Print:
    Share:  

    Free Subscriptions


    Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

    Get Social & Mobile


    Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

    Have Feedback?


    Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
    Mobile iPhone Android Web
    Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
    Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
    Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins