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Concealed patterns beneath life's variety: Synthesis of studies of how biodiversity changes reveals trends over space and time

Date:
July 26, 2010
Source:
American Institute of Biological Sciences
Summary:
Although it is well known that there are more species in the tropics than in higher latitudes, it is hard to study how the species in a sampling change in time and across large distances. A synthesis based on multiple studies reveals some surprising trends that suggest ways to more effectively explore how ecosystems develop.

Although the tropics appear to the casual observer to be busily buzzing and blooming with life's rich variety when compared with temperate and polar regions -- a fact that scientists have thoroughly documented -- the distribution of species in space and time actually varies around the globe in surprising and subtle ways. So explains Janne Soininen of the University of Helsinki in an article published in the June 2010 issue of BioScience.

Soininen explores a number of recent studies on the topic, synthesizing conclusions from thousands of observations. The studies focus on how the proportion of species that are present in both of two samples varies depending on the distance separating the sites where the samples were taken, or with the time separating two samplings of the species present at one place.

Many such studies indicate that, as expected, the species mix turns over more in the tropics than closer to the poles. But it turns out that this is true only for studies that look at small areas -- roughly, a square kilometer or less -- or at periods of less than about a year. Studies that look at very large areas, or at multi-year changes, often find the opposite effect: turnover of species is higher close to the poles than in the tropics. Soininen suggests that changes in climate over large distances and over multi-year periods explain these paradoxical trends.

Moreover, the data Soininen surveys imply that species turnover does not change in a straightforward way over distance and time, perhaps because of different interactions between the species that make up different ecosystems. Soininen suggests further studies to clarify these effects. Such work could shed light on the fundamental processes that assemble ecosystems.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by American Institute of Biological Sciences. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Janne Soininen. Species Turnover along Abiotic and Biotic Gradients: Patterns in Space Equal Patterns in Time? BioScience, June 2010 DOI: 10.1525/bio.2010.60.6.7

Cite This Page:

American Institute of Biological Sciences. "Concealed patterns beneath life's variety: Synthesis of studies of how biodiversity changes reveals trends over space and time." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 26 July 2010. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/06/100601072518.htm>.
American Institute of Biological Sciences. (2010, July 26). Concealed patterns beneath life's variety: Synthesis of studies of how biodiversity changes reveals trends over space and time. ScienceDaily. Retrieved August 31, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/06/100601072518.htm
American Institute of Biological Sciences. "Concealed patterns beneath life's variety: Synthesis of studies of how biodiversity changes reveals trends over space and time." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/06/100601072518.htm (accessed August 31, 2014).

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