Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Monkeys provide malaria reservoir for human disease in Southeast Asia

Date:
April 8, 2011
Source:
Wellcome Trust
Summary:
Monkeys infected with an emerging malaria strain are providing a reservoir for human disease in Southeast Asia, according to new research. The study confirms that the species has not yet adapted to humans and that monkeys are the main source of infection.

Monkeys infected with an emerging malaria strain are providing a reservoir for human disease in Southeast Asia, according to research published April 7. The Wellcome Trust funded study confirms that the species has not yet adapted to humans and that monkeys are the main source of infection.

Related Articles


Malaria is a potentially deadly disease that kills over a million people each year. The disease is caused by malaria parasites, which are transmitted by infected mosquitoes and injected into the bloodstream.

There are five species of malaria parasite that are known to cause disease in humans, of which Plasmodium knowlesi is the most recently identified. Previously thought to only infect monkeys, researchers have shown that human P. knowlesi infections are widely distributed in Southeast Asia and that it is a significant cause of malaria in Malaysian Borneo. Until now, it was not clear whether the infection is transmitted from person to person, or is passed over from infected monkeys.

Researchers led by Professor Balbir Singh at the Malaria Research Centre, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, collaborating with Sarawak State Health Department, St George's University of London and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, examined blood samples from 108 wild macaques from different locations around the Sarawak division in Malaysian Borneo. Their results reveal that 78% were infected with the P. knowlesi species of malaria parasite, and many were infected with one or more of four other species of monkey malaria parasites that have not yet been found in humans

By comparing the molecular identity of the parasites from monkeys and those isolated from patients with knowlesi malaria, the team were able to build a picture of the evolutionary history of the parasite and its preferred host. Their analysis reveals that transmission of the knowlesi species is more common amongst wild monkeys, than from monkeys to humans, and that monkeys remain the dominant host.

"Our findings strongly indicate that P. knowlesi is a zoonosis in this area, that is to say it is passed by mosquitoes from infected monkeys to humans, with monkeys acting as a reservoir host," explains Professor Singh. "However, with deforestation threatening the monkeys' habitat and increases in the human population, it's easy to see how this species of malaria could switch to humans as the preferred host. This would also hamper current efforts aimed at eliminating malaria."

Based on the molecular data, the researchers estimate that the knowlesi malaria species evolved from its ancestral species between 98 000 and 478 000 years ago. This predates human settlement in the area, meaning that monkeys are mostly likely to have been the initial host for the parasite when the species first emerged. This estimate also indicates that the species is as old as, or older than, the two most common human malaria parasites, P. falciparum and P. vivax.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Wellcome Trust. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Kim-Sung Lee, Paul C. S. Divis, Siti Khatijah Zakaria, Asmad Matusop, Roynston A. Julin, David J. Conway, Janet Cox-Singh, Balbir Singh. Plasmodium knowlesi: Reservoir Hosts and Tracking the Emergence in Humans and Macaques. PLoS Pathogens, 2011; 7 (4): e1002015 DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002015

Cite This Page:

Wellcome Trust. "Monkeys provide malaria reservoir for human disease in Southeast Asia." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 8 April 2011. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/04/110407171724.htm>.
Wellcome Trust. (2011, April 8). Monkeys provide malaria reservoir for human disease in Southeast Asia. ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 23, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/04/110407171724.htm
Wellcome Trust. "Monkeys provide malaria reservoir for human disease in Southeast Asia." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/04/110407171724.htm (accessed November 23, 2014).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Health & Medicine News

Sunday, November 23, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

WFP: Ebola Risks Heightened Among Women Throughout Africa

WFP: Ebola Risks Heightened Among Women Throughout Africa

AFP (Nov. 21, 2014) Having children has always been a frightening prospect in Sierra Leone, the world's most dangerous place to give birth, but Ebola has presented an alarming new threat for expectant mothers. Duration: 00:37 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Could Your Genes Be The Reason You're Single?

Could Your Genes Be The Reason You're Single?

Newsy (Nov. 21, 2014) Researchers in Beijing discovered a gene called 5-HTA1, and carriers are reportedly 20 percent more likely to be single. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Raw: Paralyzed Marine Walks With Robotic Braces

Raw: Paralyzed Marine Walks With Robotic Braces

AP (Nov. 21, 2014) Marine Corps officials say a special operations officer left paralyzed by a sniper's bullet in Afghanistan walked using robotic leg braces in a ceremony to award him a Bronze Star. (Nov. 21) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Milestone Birthdays Can Bring Existential Crisis, Study Says

Milestone Birthdays Can Bring Existential Crisis, Study Says

Newsy (Nov. 21, 2014) Researchers find that as people approach new decades in their lives they make bigger life decisions. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins