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Cell transformation from one type of cell to another

Date:
October 5, 2011
Source:
Centre for Genomic Regulation
Summary:
Researchers have now described a mechanism by which one cell can be converted into another entirely different one. The research is vital for the future development of cell therapy treatments, a new method for replacing cells damaged by illness, trauma or aging. Transcription factor C/EBP± is responsible for regulating this transformation. The study was carried out on immune system cells.

Cell transformation a la carte.
Credit: Image courtesy of Centre for Genomic Regulation

Researchers from the Haematopoietic Differentiation and Stem Cell Biology group at the Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), have described one of the mechanisms by which a cell (from the skin, for example) can be converted into another which is completely different (e.g., a neuron or hepatic cell). They have discovered that the cell transcription factor C/EBPa is a determinant factor in cell transdifferentiation.

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This differentiation mechanism can be applied to any cells of an organism.

The scope of the study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), could profoundly influence the development of cell therapies.

In all tissues, stem cells specialise to produce very different cell types. This specialisation is, to a great extent, regulated by transcription factors, proteins responsible for activating or repressing the transcription of various genes. The study of these factors is essential for understanding how a stem cell is converted into a specialised cell as well as the reverse path, that is, how a specialised cell is converted into a stem cell. This process, which reveals all the steps of specialisation, is known as dedifferentiation.

This reversal of the cell differentiation process had already been described in skin cells by a group of Japanese researchers, and cases of skin cells being converted into cardiac cells, neurons and liver cells (hepatocytes) have been reported. However, until now it hadn't been possible to see if, during this process, the cell was reconverted into a stem cell for later specialisation, or if it simply transformed into another cell. This process of direct transformation is what is known as transdifferentiation.

Investigators from the CRG, led by Thomas Graf, research professor at the ICREA, have studied this process for years. In this research they used immune system cells and saw that it was possible to convert a leukocyte (white blood cell) into a macrophage (cells which engulf and digest any foreign particle), without the need to reconvert into a stem cell, that is, following the reverse specialisation pathway. The results of this research show that dedifferentiation and transdifferentiation are completely different processes.

The scope of these findings is currently restricted to the fields of research and academia, but they will be relevant for the development of treatments with cell therapy. The possibility of obtaining cells of any type at the moment that they are required is getting closer all the time.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Centre for Genomic Regulation. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Di Tullio, A. et al. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBP α)-induced transdifferentiation of pre-B cells into macrophages involves no overt retrodifferentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci, 108: 17016- 17021 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1112169108

Cite This Page:

Centre for Genomic Regulation. "Cell transformation from one type of cell to another." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 5 October 2011. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/10/111003151046.htm>.
Centre for Genomic Regulation. (2011, October 5). Cell transformation from one type of cell to another. ScienceDaily. Retrieved January 25, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/10/111003151046.htm
Centre for Genomic Regulation. "Cell transformation from one type of cell to another." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/10/111003151046.htm (accessed January 25, 2015).

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