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Super-sized muscle made twin-horned dinosaur a speedster

Date:
October 17, 2011
Source:
University of Alberta
Summary:
A meat-eating dinosaur that terrorized its plant-eating neighbors in South America was a lot deadlier than first thought, a researcher has found. Carnotaurus was a seven-meter-long predator with a huge tail muscle that paleontologists say made it one of the fastest running hunters of its time.
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Carnotaurus, a seven-meter-long eating machine, had a huge tail muscle that University of Alberta paleontology graduate student Scott Persons says made it one of the fastest running hunters of its time.
Credit: Image courtesy of University of Alberta

A meat-eating dinosaur that terrorized its plant-eating neighbours in South America was a lot deadlier than first thought, a University of Alberta researcher has found. Carnotaurus was a seven-metre-long predator with a huge tail muscle that U of A paleontology graduate student Scott Persons says made it one of the fastest running hunters of its time.

A close examination of the tail bones of Carnotaurus showed its caudofemoralis muscle had a tendon that attached to its upper leg bones. Flexing this muscle pulled the legs backwards and gave Carnotaurus more power and speed in every step.

In earlier research, Persons found a similar tail-muscle and leg-power combination in the iconic predator Tyrannosaurus rex. Up until Persons published that paper, many dinosaur researchers thought T. rex's huge tail might have simply served as a teeter-totter-like counterweight to its huge, heavy head.

Persons' examination of the tail of Carnotaurus showed that along its length were pairs of tall rib-like bones that interlocked with the next pair in line. Using 3-D computer models, Persons recreated the tail muscles of Carnotaurus. He found that the unusual tail ribs supported a huge caudofemoralis muscle. The interlocked bone structure along the dinosaur's tail did present one drawback: the tail was rigid, making it difficult for the hunter to make quick, fluid turns. Persons says that what Carnotaurus gave up in maneuverability, it made up for in straight ahead speed. For its size, Carnotaurus had the largest caudofemoralis muscle of any known animal, living or extinct.

Persons published these findings in PLoS ONE on Oct.14, with supervisor Philip Currie, a paleontology professor at the U of A.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of Alberta. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. W. Scott Persons, Philip J. Currie. Dinosaur Speed Demon: The Caudal Musculature of Carnotaurus sastrei and Implications for the Evolution of South American Abelisaurids. PLoS ONE, 2011; 6 (10): e25763 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025763

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University of Alberta. "Super-sized muscle made twin-horned dinosaur a speedster." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 17 October 2011. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/10/111014212405.htm>.
University of Alberta. (2011, October 17). Super-sized muscle made twin-horned dinosaur a speedster. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 29, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/10/111014212405.htm
University of Alberta. "Super-sized muscle made twin-horned dinosaur a speedster." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/10/111014212405.htm (accessed May 29, 2015).

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