Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Vaccination strategy may hold key to ridding HIV infection from immune system

Date:
March 8, 2012
Source:
Johns Hopkins Medicine
Summary:
Using human immune system cells in the lab, AIDS experts have figured out a way to kill off latent forms of HIV that hide in infected T cells long after antiretroviral therapy has successfully stalled viral replication to undetectable levels in blood tests.

Using human immune system cells in the lab, AIDS experts at Johns Hopkins have figured out a way to kill off latent forms of HIV that hide in infected T cells long after antiretroviral therapy has successfully stalled viral replication to undetectable levels in blood tests.

Related Articles


In a report to be published in the journal Immunity online March 8, the Johns Hopkins team describes a vaccination strategy that boosts other immune system T cells and prepares them to attack HIV, before readying the virus for eradication by reactivating it.

HIV has long been known to persist in a dormant, inactive state inside immune system T cells even long after potent drugs have stopped the virus from making copies of itself to infect other cells. But once treatment is stopped or interrupted, the latent virus quickly reactivates, HIV disease progresses, and researchers say it has proven all but impossible to wipe out these pockets of infection.

Johns Hopkins senior study investigator and infectious disease specialist Robert Siliciano, M.D., Ph.D., who in 1995 first showed that reservoirs of dormant virus survived, says the resulting need for lifelong drug treatment has raised concerns about the adverse effects of decades of therapy, the growing risk of drug resistance, and the rising cost of care.

Siliciano and other AIDS scientists say the best hope for ultimately curing the disease is to force latent viruses to "turn back on," making them "visible" to the immune system's so-called cytolytic "killer" T cells and then, with the likely aid of drugs, eliminate the infected cells from the body.

In his new study, Siliciano showed that infected T cells survived after latent virus was reactivated, and were only killed off when other immune system T cells were primed before reactivation.

"Our study results strongly suggest that a vaccination to boost the immune response immediately prior to reactivating latent virus may be essential for totally eradicating HIV infection," says Siliciano, a professor at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator.

In their journal report, Siliciano and his colleagues describe their vaccination strategy and how short pieces of HIV proteins were introduced to stimulate the anti-HIV T-cell response just before reactivation of the latent virus. The incomplete viral proteins and subsequent immune system vaccination led to production of enough cytolytic T cells to attack and kill the latently infected cells.

Siliciano and his team next plans to test different methods for boosting the immune response before latent virus reactivation and compare their effectiveness in clearing all HIV- infected cells.

Currently, there are more than 34 million people in the world living with HIV, including an estimated 1,178,000 in the United States.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Johns Hopkins Medicine. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Liang Shan, Kai Deng, NeetaS. Shroff, ChristineM. Durand, S.Alireza. Rabi, Hung-Chih Yang, Hao Zhang, JosephB. Margolick, JoelN. Blankson, RobertF. Siliciano. Stimulation of HIV-1-Specific Cytolytic T Lymphocytes Facilitates Elimination of Latent Viral Reservoir after Virus Reactivation. Immunity, 2012; DOI: 10.1016/j.immuni.2012.01.014

Cite This Page:

Johns Hopkins Medicine. "Vaccination strategy may hold key to ridding HIV infection from immune system." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 8 March 2012. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/03/120308132510.htm>.
Johns Hopkins Medicine. (2012, March 8). Vaccination strategy may hold key to ridding HIV infection from immune system. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 31, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/03/120308132510.htm
Johns Hopkins Medicine. "Vaccination strategy may hold key to ridding HIV infection from immune system." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/03/120308132510.htm (accessed October 31, 2014).

Share This



More Health & Medicine News

Friday, October 31, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

U.S. Ebola Response Measures Demonstrated

U.S. Ebola Response Measures Demonstrated

AP (Oct. 31, 2014) Officials in the Washington area showed off Ebola response measures being taken at Dulles International Airport and the National Institutes of Health. (Oct. 31) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Fauci Says Ebola Risk in US "essentially Zero"

Fauci Says Ebola Risk in US "essentially Zero"

AP (Oct. 30, 2014) NIAID Director Anthony Fauci said the risk of Ebola becoming an epidemic in the U.S. is essentially zero Thursday at the Washington Ideas Forum. He also said an Ebola vaccine will be tested in West Africa in the next few months. (Oct. 30) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Nurse Defies Ebola Quarantine With Bike Ride

Nurse Defies Ebola Quarantine With Bike Ride

AP (Oct. 30, 2014) A nurse who vowed to defy Maine's voluntary quarantine for health care workers who treated Ebola patients followed through on her promise Thursday, leaving her home for an hour-long bike ride. (Oct. 30) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Pot-Infused Edibles Raise Concerns in Colorado

Pot-Infused Edibles Raise Concerns in Colorado

AFP (Oct. 30, 2014) Colorado may have legalized marijuana for recreational use, but the debate around the decision still continues, with a recent - failed - attempt to ban cannabis-infused edibles. Duration: 01:53 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins