Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

HIV vaccine research must consider various immune responses

Date:
April 3, 2014
Source:
NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Summary:
Future HIV vaccine research must consider both protective immune responses and those that might increase susceptibility to infection, a new article suggests. Between 2005 and 2013, investigational HIV vaccines based on recombinant adenovirus type 5 (rAd5), a weakened type of cold virus designed to deliver genetic material, were tested in three clinical trials. Two of those studies, known as Step and Phambili, involved the same experimental vaccine. Both studies showed no efficacy against acquisition of HIV infection; however, they suggested an increased risk of HIV acquisition among vaccinated male study participants.

Last year, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, held a scientific meeting to examine why certain investigational HIV vaccines may have increased susceptibility to HIV infection. In a new perspectives article appearing in the journal Science, HIV research leaders from NIAID (Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., and Carl W. Dieffenbach, Ph.D.) and its grantees at Emory University (Eric Hunter, Ph.D.) and the University of California, San Francisco (Susan Buchbinder, M.D.), summarize the findings and considerations for future HIV vaccine research.

Related Articles


Between 2005 and 2013, investigational HIV vaccines based on recombinant adenovirus type 5 (rAd5), a weakened type of cold virus designed to deliver genetic material, were tested in three clinical trials. Two of those studies, known as Step and Phambili, involved the same experimental vaccine. Both studies showed no efficacy against acquisition of HIV infection; however, they suggested an increased risk of HIV acquisition among vaccinated male study participants. Based on subsequent analyses, the authors hypothesize that the rAd5-based vaccines tested may have heightened susceptibility to HIV infection by activating for sustained periods CD4+ T-cells, the key target for HIV, while producing ineffective or limited protective effects against HIV.

Given the lack of efficacy demonstrated by rAd-5 based HIV candidates and the potential increased risk for HIV acquisition, further development of HIV vaccines using rAd-5 vectors are inappropriate, the authors write. Researchers who want to pursue HIV vaccines using different adenoviruses or other vaccine delivery systems should perform a risk-benefit analysis that weighs the balance between the potential anti-HIV vaccine responses and protective benefit of the vaccine against the vaccine-induced risk of increased HIV acquisition due to heightened CD4+ T-cell activation. Moving forward, the HIV vaccine research field would benefit by clarifying the role vaccine vectors play in overall HIV vaccine effectiveness, identifying biomarkers in nonhuman primates that indicate increased risk for HIV acquisition, and developing a better understanding of mucosal immune system responses to HIV vaccination, according to the authors.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. A. S. Fauci, M. A. Marovich, C. W. Dieffenbach, E. Hunter, S. P. Buchbinder. Immune Activation with HIV Vaccines. Science, 2014; 344 (6179): 49 DOI: 10.1126/science.1250672

Cite This Page:

NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. "HIV vaccine research must consider various immune responses." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 3 April 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/04/140403142027.htm>.
NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. (2014, April 3). HIV vaccine research must consider various immune responses. ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 29, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/04/140403142027.htm
NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. "HIV vaccine research must consider various immune responses." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/04/140403142027.htm (accessed March 29, 2015).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Health & Medicine News

Sunday, March 29, 2015

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

S. Leone in New Anti-Ebola Lockdown

S. Leone in New Anti-Ebola Lockdown

AFP (Mar. 28, 2015) Sierra Leone imposed a three-day nationwide lockdown Friday for the second time in six months in a bid to prevent a resurgence of the deadly Ebola virus. Duration: 01:17 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
These Popular Antibiotics Can Cause Permanent Nerve Damage

These Popular Antibiotics Can Cause Permanent Nerve Damage

Newsy (Mar. 27, 2015) A popular class of antibiotic can leave patients in severe pain and even result in permanent nerve damage. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
WH Plan to Fight Antibiotic-Resistant Germs

WH Plan to Fight Antibiotic-Resistant Germs

AP (Mar. 27, 2015) The White House on Friday announced a five-year plan to fight the threat posed by antibiotic-resistant bacteria amid fears that once-treatable germs could become deadly. (March 27) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
House Ready to Pass Medicare Doc Bill

House Ready to Pass Medicare Doc Bill

AP (Mar. 26, 2015) In rare bipartisan harmony, congressional leaders pushed a $214 billion bill permanently blocking physician Medicare cuts toward House passage Thursday, moving lawmakers closer to resolving a problem that has plagued them for years. (March 26) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins