Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Urbanization, higher temperatures can influence butterfly emergence patterns

Date:
April 28, 2014
Source:
North Carolina State University
Summary:
Researchers have found that a subset of common butterfly species are emerging later than usual in urban areas located in warmer regions, raising questions about how the insects respond to significant increases in temperature.

An Eastern Tiger Swallowtail, one of the affected species.
Credit: Rob Liptak

An international team of researchers has found that a subset of common butterfly species are emerging later than usual in urban areas located in warmer regions, raising questions about how the insects respond to significant increases in temperature.

"We know that butterflies emerge earlier in North Carolina than they do in New England, because it's warmer," says Tyson Wepprich, a Ph.D. student at NC State and co-author of a paper describing the work. "We also know that cities are heat sinks that are warmer than outlying areas. So we wanted to see whether butterflies would emerge earlier in cities than they do in more rural environments."

To address the question, the research team focused on 20 of the most common butterfly species found in Ohio. The team used data from the Ohio Lepidopterists' Society, whose volunteers monitor butterfly populations at sites across Ohio every week from April through October. The work was done by researchers at North Carolina State University, Case Western Reserve University, the Instituto de Pesquisas Ecolσgicas in Brazil, and the University of Maryland.

The researchers used the Ohio monitoring data from the years 1996 to 2011 to establish when each species emerged at each site every year, when each species' population numbers peaked at each site every year, and the last recorded observation of each species at each site every year. The researchers also looked at the temperature and urban density around each monitoring site.

There was a wide range of responses to urbanization across species, but one finding stood out.

"The combined effect of an urban area and a warmer part of the state appeared to delay emergence in seven of the 20 species," Wepprich says.

The affected species in these areas, including the Eastern Tiger Swallowtail, emerged days or weeks after other butterflies of the same species emerged in either rural areas in the warmer parts of Ohio, or urban areas in colder parts of Ohio.

"Even though butterflies often change their emergence predictably to small increases in temperature, these species responded in unexpected ways to larger increases in temperature," Wepprich says.

"Scientists often use analogies for global climate change, such as urban warming, to understand how species' might respond to a warmer future," Wepprich adds. "This allows us to estimate which species are more vulnerable to climate change.

"We don't really know precisely where the tipping point is, or why only some species respond this way, but something is happening here. We're still working to better understand what's going on with these butterfly species and what consequences there may be for their populations."

The work was supported by the Department of the Interior's Southeast Climate Science Center, which is based at NC State; U.S. Geological Survey grant G10AC00624; Department of Energy grant DE-FG02-08ER64510; and grants from the National Science Foundation, NASA, and the Brazilian agency CAPES.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by North Carolina State University. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Sarah E. Diamond, Heather Cayton, Tyson Wepprich, Clinton N. Jenkins, Robert R. Dunn, Nick M. Haddad, Leslie Ries. Unexpected phenological responses of butterflies to the interaction of urbanization and geographic temperature. Ecology, 2014; 140312103410002 DOI: 10.1890/13-1848.1

Cite This Page:

North Carolina State University. "Urbanization, higher temperatures can influence butterfly emergence patterns." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 28 April 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/04/140428121244.htm>.
North Carolina State University. (2014, April 28). Urbanization, higher temperatures can influence butterfly emergence patterns. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 29, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/04/140428121244.htm
North Carolina State University. "Urbanization, higher temperatures can influence butterfly emergence patterns." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/04/140428121244.htm (accessed July 29, 2014).

Share This




More Plants & Animals News

Tuesday, July 29, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Deadly Ebola Virus Threatens West Africa

Deadly Ebola Virus Threatens West Africa

AP (July 28, 2014) — West African nations and international health organizations are working to contain the largest Ebola outbreak in history. It's one of the deadliest diseases known to man, but the CDC says it's unlikely to spread in the U.S. (July 28) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Traditional African Dishes Teach Healthy Eating

Traditional African Dishes Teach Healthy Eating

AP (July 28, 2014) — Classes are being offered nationwide to encourage African Americans to learn about cooking fresh foods based on traditional African cuisine. The program is trying to combat obesity, heart disease and other ailments often linked to diet. (July 28) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Asteroid's Timing Was 'Colossal Bad Luck' For The Dinosaurs

Asteroid's Timing Was 'Colossal Bad Luck' For The Dinosaurs

Newsy (July 28, 2014) — The asteroid that killed the dinosaurs struck at the worst time for them. A new study says that if it hit earlier or later, they might've survived. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Raw: Sea Turtle Hatchlings Emerge from Nest

Raw: Sea Turtle Hatchlings Emerge from Nest

AP (July 27, 2014) — A live-streaming webcam catches loggerhead sea turtle hatchlings emerging from a nest in the Florida Keys. (July 27) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins