The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2007 jointly to Leonid Hurwicz, of the University of Minnesota, Eric S. Maskin, of the Institute for Advanced Study, in Princeton, NJ, and Roger B. Myerson, of the University of Chicago, "for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory."
The design of economic institutions
Adam Smith's classical metaphor of the invisible hand refers to how the market, under ideal conditions, ensures an efficient allocation of scarce resources. But in practice conditions are usually not ideal; for example, competition is not completely free, consumers are not perfectly informed and privately desirable production and consumption may generate social costs and benefits.
Furthermore, many transactions do not take place in open markets but within firms, in bargaining between individuals or interest groups and under a host of other institutional arrangements. How well do different such institutions, or allocation mechanisms, perform? What is the optimal mechanism to reach a certain goal, such as social welfare or private profit? Is government regulation called for, and if so, how is it best designed?
These questions are difficult, particularly since information about individual preferences and available production technologies is usually dispersed among many actors who may use their private information to further their own interests.
Mechanism design theory, initiated by Leonid Hurwicz and further developed by Eric Maskin and Roger Myerson, has greatly enhanced our understanding of the properties of optimal allocation mechanisms in such situations, accounting for individuals' incentives and private information. The theory allows us to distinguish situations in which markets work well from those in which they do not. It has helped economists identify efficient trading mechanisms, regulation schemes and voting procedures. Today, mechanism design theory plays a central role in many areas of economics and parts of political science.
Leonid Hurwicz is a US citizen. Born in 1917 in Moscow, Russia, he is now Regents Professor Emeritus of Economics at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Eric S. Maskin, US citizen, was born in 1950 in New York City, and received his Ph.D. in applied mathematics in 1976 from Harvard University. He has been Albert O. Hirschman Professor of Social Science at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton University, since 2000. Roger B. Myerson, also US citizen, was born in 1951 in Boston, MA, and received his Ph.D. in applied mathematics in 1976 from Harvard University. He has been the Glen A. Lloyd Distinguished Service Professor at the University of Chicago since 2007.
The prize amount of SEK 10 million will be shared equally among the laureates.
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