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Petrified wood

Petrified wood is a type of fossil: it exists of fossil wood where all the organic materials have been replaced with minerals (most often a silicate, such as quartz), while retaining the original structure of the wood.

The petrifaction process has occurred underground, when wood became buried under sediment.

Note:   The above text is excerpted from the Wikipedia article "Petrified wood", which has been released under the GNU Free Documentation License.
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