MOUNT VERNON, Va., — The DNA collected from 13 trees at Mount Vernon, planted under George Washington's supervision, will be profiled and cataloged as the first step in the creation of a genetic database for specific ornamental trees.
While the human genome has been detailed in a worldwide effort by thousands of scientists, nothing similar has been done with trees, noted J. Dean Norton, director of horticulture at Mount Vernon. Norton has enlisted the aid of Virginia Tech and the USDA Forest Service's National Forest Genetic Electrophoresis Laboratory in Placerville, Calif., to use the Washington Trees as the beginnings of in-depth research into the genetics of a number of important tree species.
"This will be the start of a genetic database of these trees," said Norton. "George Washington was always experimenting, trying new ways of growing his crops. I think it's great that this 18th century site can still take the lead in research."
The 13 Washington Trees, the only trees now living that are known to have been planted at Washington's direction, are seven American Holly, one Canadian Hemlock, two Tulip Poplar, two White Ash, and one White Mulberry. Samples collected from 17 other trees of the same species at Mount Vernon and the surrounding area will also be evaluated in the project.
Norton contacted M.A. Saghai Maroof, a plant geneticist at Virginia Tech and an expert in the analysis of the DNA of plants, to help with the project.
"The genetic structure of plants are similar, but there are unique challenges in working with different types of plants," said Saghai Maroof. "My expertise is in discovering genes that provide disease resistance in agricultural crops. For this project, it was important to bring in a laboratory with the capacity and the expertise to deal with DNA of trees."
Saghai Maroof contacted the Forest Service laboratory.
Valerie Hipkins, director of the National Forest Genetic Electrophoresis Laboratory, said she was excited to be involved in the Washington Trees project.
"This facility provides molecular genetic information for the evaluation and protection of the genetic resource represented by our nation's trees," she said. "We will be doing DNA 'profiling,' which will be similar to the type of work most people are familiar with in criminal cases, or paternity cases, and the like. With people there is a tremendous database of information, so we are able to match DNA to an individual with a great degree of accuracy. There is no similar database for trees. This to a very great extent is new; we'll be breaking new ground."
The first scheduled collection of cutting by horticulturists from Mount Vernon is set for Feb. 18 while the trees are in a dormant stage. Additional cuttings will be collected in the late spring or summer when the deciduous trees are in leaf. The cuttings will be express-shipped to the Forest Service laboratory in California, where scientists will immediately begin the process of extracting DNA for detailed analysis.
According to Hipkins, each sample’s genetic markers will be generated at multiple locations along the string of genetic information thought to show variation within a species. This information can be used to identify a sample as coming from a particular individual. The lab will produce a bar-code like pattern for each individual using fingerprinting techniques based on polymerase chain reaction, or PCR, techniques. The laboratory procedures will take weeks to conduct. Hipkins expects to be able to provide a report on the lab's findings by the end of the summer.
Those findings will be important to Norton not just because of their intrinsic scientific value. Being able to identify individual trees – especially the Washington Trees – solves another problem for him.
Those 13 historically important trees are nearing the ends of their normal expected life spans. Last summer, cuttings were taken for rooting, and buds gathered for grafting from the trees to produce genetically identical clones. Once those duplicates are established, Mount Vernon will be able to plant them on the Estate, preserving them for future use on the grounds and for other horticultural endeavors.
The genetic profiles determined by the Forest Service's laboratory will be used to authenticate clones of these historically important individual trees, ensuring they will be recognized and protected in the future, Norton said.
He acknowledges that the eventual establishment of a database of genetic information may have a broader significance in the conservation of trees in the future. In this, the Washington trees will play an important role.
"What better trees to serve as the foundation of this database," he asked. "This type of genetic research is the path to the future. Who better to lead the way than the Father of Our Country, George Washington?"
The above story is based on materials provided by Virginia Tech. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.
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