Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Pine Plantations May Be One Culprit In Increasing Carbon Dioxide Levels

Date:
July 24, 2006
Source:
Ohio State University
Summary:
The increasing number of pine plantations in the southern United States could contribute to a rise in carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere, a new study reports. This is important because carbon dioxide is a key greenhouse gas, one that is linked to global warming.

The increasing number of pine plantations in the southern United States could contribute to a rise in carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere, a new study reports.

This is important because carbon dioxide is a key greenhouse gas, one that is linked to global warming.

Landowners in the South are turning stands of hardwood and natural pine trees into pine plantations because pine is a more lucrative source of lumber.

But pine plantations don't retain carbon as well as hardwood or natural pine forests, said Brent Sohngen, a study co-author and an associate professor of agricultural, environmental and development economics at Ohio State University.

“For environmental reasons, policy makers may want to develop policies that encourage the establishment or maintenance of hardwood forests to ensure diversity across the landscape,” Sohngen said.

Sohngen examined the issues with Sandra Brown, an ecologist with Winrock International, a non-profit organization based in Arlington , Va. Together, the two developed a statistical model, based on the economic value of the land, to predict how many acres of hardwood and natural pine forests would be converted to pine plantations over the next 30 years. They also calculated what this potential conversion would mean in terms of carbon dioxide emissions.

The results appear in a recent issue of the journal Ecological Economics.

The researchers estimate that some 10 million acres – roughly the size of New Hampshire and Vermont – of mainly hardwood and natural pine forests will be chopped down to make way for pine plantations by 2030 in just three Southern states. That translates into roughly 700,000 tons more carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere annually, or 21 million tons over the 30-year period.

That number may seem like a drop in the bucket compared to the 3 billion tons of carbon the United States emits annually. But Sohngen is quick to point out that the model only included Arkansas, Louisiana and Mississippi and that the results can apply across the southern United States, suggesting that carbon dioxide emissions could be as much as four times higher.

The researchers used their model to estimate the proportion of land on which different types of timber were grown. They separated land into three different categories: hardwood stands (including a mix of oak, elm, ash and cottonwood); natural pine stands; and plantations of southern pine species. They also considered the per-hectare rental values for each type of stand (one hectare = 2.5 acres.)

In the last 40 years, roughly 30 million acres (12 million hectares, or about the size of state of Mississippi ) of mostly old and abandoned agricultural lands were converted to pine plantations in Arkansas , Louisiana and Mississippi . But this kind of land has become scarce, and pine plantation owners are now clearing more stands of hardwood trees and natural pines in order to cultivate plantations.

Sohngen and Brown estimate that an area roughly the size of Los Angeles – about 333,600 acres (135,000 hectares) – is converted to pine plantations each year.

Hardwood forests tend to store more carbon than pine plantations do, said Sohngen. And natural pine stands store more carbon than do pine plantations. A hardwood forest has more organic matter – leaves, branches, roots, and a mix of tree species – than a pine plantation does. More organic matter means more storage space for carbon.

Natural pine stands also have more organic matter than a carefully cultivated pine plantation – for instance, a natural pine stand typically has a wider variety of plant and tree species growing in it than a plantation does.

To encourage owners of hardwood and natural pine forests to hold on to their stands, the researchers suggest that existing conservation programs and private transactions for carbon give credit to landowners who maintain or invest in hardwood stands.

“Right now, landowners can make more money from pine than from hardwood stands,” Sohngen said. “Historically, pine plantations are much more productive in terms of timber products.”

Such subsidies would help close the gap with what owners of pine plantations currently earn – about $20 to $50 per acre per year to cultivate their stocks. Owners of hardwood and natural pine stands typically earn less.

“But maintaining hardwood and natural pine forests is an efficient way to store carbon,” he continued. “We can encourage landowners to hold on to these stands – and help reduce carbon dioxide in the atmosphere – by subsidizing their costs.”

Funding from the Electric Power Research Institute to Winrock International supported this study.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Ohio State University. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

Ohio State University. "Pine Plantations May Be One Culprit In Increasing Carbon Dioxide Levels." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 24 July 2006. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/07/060724125839.htm>.
Ohio State University. (2006, July 24). Pine Plantations May Be One Culprit In Increasing Carbon Dioxide Levels. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 2, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/07/060724125839.htm
Ohio State University. "Pine Plantations May Be One Culprit In Increasing Carbon Dioxide Levels." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/07/060724125839.htm (accessed September 2, 2014).

Share This




More Plants & Animals News

Tuesday, September 2, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

U.N. Says Ebola Travel Restrictions Will Cause Food Shortage

U.N. Says Ebola Travel Restrictions Will Cause Food Shortage

Newsy (Sep. 2, 2014) — The U.N. says the problem is two-fold — quarantine zones and travel restrictions are limiting the movement of both people and food. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Sharks Off the Menu and on the Tourist Trail in Palau

Sharks Off the Menu and on the Tourist Trail in Palau

AFP (Sep. 2, 2014) — Tourists in Palau clamour to dive with sharks thanks to a pioneering conservation initiative -- as the island nation plans to completely ban commercial fishing in its vast ocean territory. 01:15 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
We've Got Mites Living In Our Faces And So Do You

We've Got Mites Living In Our Faces And So Do You

Newsy (Aug. 30, 2014) — A new study suggests 100 percent of adult humans (those over 18 years of age) have Demodex mites living in their faces. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Coffee Then Napping: The (New) Key To Alertness

Coffee Then Napping: The (New) Key To Alertness

Newsy (Aug. 30, 2014) — Researchers say having a cup of coffee then taking a nap is more effective than a nap or coffee alone. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins