Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Ancient Cellular Pathway Important In Fighting Viruses

Date:
February 22, 2007
Source:
Yale University
Summary:
Autophagy, or self-cannabalism, plays a major role in the body's antiviral immune response, according to a report in Science by Yale School of Medicine researchers.

Autophagy, or self-cannabalism, plays a major role in the body’s antiviral immune response, according to a report in Science by Yale School of Medicine researchers.

“Our results imply that facilitating autophagy may be a benefit in antiviral therapies for certain single-stranded RNA viruses, such as the Rhabdoviruses and Paramyxoviruses, families that cause rabies and measles,” said Akiko Iwasaki, Ph.D., associate professor in the Department of Immunobiology and senior author of the study.

Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that allows cells to digest organelles and materials in the cytosol, or cytoplasm, to survive starvation conditions.

Iwasaki said she and her colleagues found that this process in which parts of the cell are digested and recycled has a significant role in antiviral immune responses of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. The recycling process allows the immune system to recognize viral replication intermediates. It also allows secretion of type I interferons to combat viral replication.

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells are specialized for detecting infections by viruses. These cells have Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) that detect single-stranded RNA viruses in the lysosomes, which are organelles that act like a digestive tract within the cell. Previous studies indicated that TLR7 detects the single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses as the engulfed viruses are degraded in the lysosomes.

“However,” Iwasaki said, “our study found that not all ssRNA viruses are detected in this way. Instead, for certain ssRNA viruses, such as the vesicular stomatitis virus (a Rhabdovirus) and Sendai virus (a Paramyxovirus), the plasmacytoid dendritic cells detect replication intermediates that are made when the virus reproduces in the cytosol.”

To understand the difference, the researchers looked at the autophagy pathway. They hypothesized that the process could be used by the plasmacytoid dendritic cells to transport cytosolic replication intermediates into the lysosomes to be detected by Toll-like receptor 7.

“By using plasmacytoid dendritic cells that are deficient in autophagy, we showed that recognition of vesicular stomatitis virus is diminished in these cells,” Iwasaki said. “We also discovered that autophagy is required for the secretion of type I interferons, which are key defense molecules against virus infections.”

Co-authors include Heung Kyu Lee of Yale; Jennifer Lund, now at the University of Washington; Balaji Ramanathan, now at the University of Prince Edward Island, and Noboru Mizushima of Tokyo Medical and Dental University.

The study was supported by the National Institutes of Health.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Yale University. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

Yale University. "Ancient Cellular Pathway Important In Fighting Viruses." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 22 February 2007. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/02/070221104917.htm>.
Yale University. (2007, February 22). Ancient Cellular Pathway Important In Fighting Viruses. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 18, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/02/070221104917.htm
Yale University. "Ancient Cellular Pathway Important In Fighting Viruses." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/02/070221104917.htm (accessed September 18, 2014).

Share This



More Plants & Animals News

Thursday, September 18, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Chimp Violence Study Renews Debate On Why They Kill

Chimp Violence Study Renews Debate On Why They Kill

Newsy (Sep. 17, 2014) The study weighs in on a debate over whether chimps are naturally violent or become that way due to human interference in the environment. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Some Tobacco Farmers Thrive Amid Challenges

Some Tobacco Farmers Thrive Amid Challenges

AP (Sep. 16, 2014) The South's tobacco country is surviving, and even thriving in some cases, as demand overseas keeps growers in the fields of one of America's oldest cash crops. (Sept. 16) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Scientists Given Rare Glimpse of 350-Kilo Colossal Squid

Scientists Given Rare Glimpse of 350-Kilo Colossal Squid

AFP (Sep. 16, 2014) Scientists say a female colossal squid weighing an estimated 350 kilograms (770 lbs) and thought to be only the second intact specimen ever found was carrying eggs when discovered in the Antarctic. Duration: 00:47 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Raw: Scientists Examine Colossal Squid

Raw: Scientists Examine Colossal Squid

AP (Sep. 16, 2014) Squid experts in New Zealand thawed and examined an unusual catch on Tuesday: a colossal squid. It was captured in Antarctica's remote Ross Sea in December last year and has been frozen for eight months. (Sept. 16) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins