Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Sexually-Transmitted Diseases Disrupt Genetic Bottleneck That Usually Constrains HIV Infection

Date:
January 26, 2009
Source:
Public Library of Science
Summary:
Scientists have shown that HIV faces a genetic "bottleneck" when the virus is transmitted heterosexually from one person to another, by way of the genital mucosa. The results explain why prior infection by other sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) makes individuals more susceptible to HIV infection.

Scientists have shown that HIV faces a genetic "bottleneck" when the virus is transmitted heterosexually from one person to another, by way of the genital mucosa. The results explain why prior infection by other sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) makes individuals more susceptible to HIV infection.

Related Articles


The team of researchers, lead by Eric Hunter of Emory University, identified 20 heterosexual couples soon after infection occurred and obtained viral genetic sequences from both partners. They examined the most variable region of the virus' env gene, which encodes a protein forming the outer coat of the virus. Approximately 90% of the couple recipients were found to be infected by a single viral variant of HIV-1. However, that variant was not the same in each case.

For comparison, the researchers also analyzed a group of newly infected individuals who were infected by someone other than their spouse. This group showed more variety in viral sequences, with 3 out of 7 individuals infected by multiple variants. Overall, out of 42 newly infected people studied to date, all five infected by multiple viral variants had evidence of genital inflammation or ulceration.

In these cases, it appears that the bottleneck was enlarged due to the disruption of normally protective mucosal barriers by STDs. These findings suggest that the genital mucosa provides a natural barrier to infection by multiple genetic variants of HIV-1 that can be lowered by inflammatory genital infections.

To identify newly infected individuals, the team collaborated with public health programs directed by Susan Allen of Emory's Rollins School of Public Health that enroll thousands of heterosexual couples with one HIV-positive partner in Rwanda and Zambia.

The research was funded by grants from the National Institutes of Health, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Grand Challenges Program and the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Public Library of Science. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Haaland RE, Hawkins PA, Salazar-Gonzalez J, Johnson A, Tichacek A, et al. Inflammatory Genital Infections Mitigate a Severe Genetic Bottleneck in Heterosexual Transmission of Subtype A and C HIV-1. PLoS Pathog, 5(1): e1000274 DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000274

Cite This Page:

Public Library of Science. "Sexually-Transmitted Diseases Disrupt Genetic Bottleneck That Usually Constrains HIV Infection." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 26 January 2009. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/01/090122202800.htm>.
Public Library of Science. (2009, January 26). Sexually-Transmitted Diseases Disrupt Genetic Bottleneck That Usually Constrains HIV Infection. ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 28, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/01/090122202800.htm
Public Library of Science. "Sexually-Transmitted Diseases Disrupt Genetic Bottleneck That Usually Constrains HIV Infection." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/01/090122202800.htm (accessed November 28, 2014).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Health & Medicine News

Friday, November 28, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Rural India's Low-Cost Sanitary Pad Revolution

Rural India's Low-Cost Sanitary Pad Revolution

AFP (Nov. 28, 2014) — One man hopes his invention -– a machine that produces cheap sanitary pads –- will help empower Indian women. Duration: 01:51 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Research on Bats Could Help Develop Drugs Against Ebola

Research on Bats Could Help Develop Drugs Against Ebola

AFP (Nov. 28, 2014) — In Africa's only biosafety level 4 laboratory, scientists have been carrying out experiments on bats to understand how virus like Ebola are being transmitted, and how some of them resist to it. Duration: 01:18 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
WHO Says Male Ebola Survivors Should Abstain From Sex

WHO Says Male Ebola Survivors Should Abstain From Sex

Newsy (Nov. 28, 2014) — WHO cites four studies that say Ebola can still be detected in semen up to 82 days after the onset of symptoms. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Ebola Leaves Orphans Alone in Sierra Leone

Ebola Leaves Orphans Alone in Sierra Leone

AFP (Nov. 27, 2014) — The Ebola epidemic sweeping Sierra Leone is having a profound effect on the country's children, many of whom have been left without any family members to support them. Duration: 01:02 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories

 

Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins