Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

New Monitoring Stations Detect 'Silent Earthquakes' In Costa Rica

Date:
February 19, 2009
Source:
University of California - Santa Cruz
Summary:
After installing an extensive network of monitoring stations in Costa Rica, researchers have detected slow slip events (also known as "silent earthquakes") along a major fault zone beneath the Nicoya Peninsula. These findings are helping scientists understand the full spectrum of motions occurring on the fault and may yield new insights into the events that lead to major earthquakes.

After installing an extensive network of monitoring stations in Costa Rica, researchers have detected slow slip events (also known as "silent earthquakes") along a major fault zone beneath the Nicoya Peninsula. These findings are helping scientists understand the full spectrum of motions occurring on the fault and may yield new insights into the events that lead to major earthquakes.

A slow slip event involves the same fault motion as an earthquake, but it happens so slowly that the ground does not shake. It can be detected only with networks of modern instruments that use the Global Positioning System (GPS) to measure precisely the movements of the Earth's crust over time.

Susan Schwartz, a professor of Earth and planetary sciences at the University of California, Santa Cruz, leads a team that has installed a permanent network of 13 GPS monitoring stations and 13 seismic stations on Costa Rica's Nicoya Peninsula.

"At least two slow slip events have occurred beneath the Nicoya Peninsula since 2003," Schwartz said. "When we recorded the first one in 2003, we had only 3 GPS stations. By 2007, we had 12 GPS stations and over 10 seismic stations, so the event that year was very nicely recorded."

The National Science Foundation (NSF) has funded the work by Schwartz and others to install monitoring equipment in Costa Rica. Schwartz, who directs UCSC's Keck Seismological Laboratory, has been working in the region since 1991. At the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) in Chicago, she will describe results from the past decade of fault-zone monitoring in Central America.

"The newest discovery is the occurrence of these slow slip events. But there has been a decade of focused effort in this area that has significantly advanced our knowledge of the Central America seismogenic system," Schwartz said. "Initially, we focused on areas of the fault that are locked up, which slip in an earthquake. The slow slip is occurring in regions that are not strongly locked, and a big question is whether that is loading the locked area, making it more likely to break, or relieving stress on the fault."

Schwartz said she does not think slow slip events significantly increase the likelihood of a major earthquake on a locked portion of the fault. She noted, however, that scientists are still at an early stage in terms of understanding the implications of different kinds of fault motion and translating that information into earthquake hazard assessments.

Flanked by active tectonic margins on both the Pacific and Caribbean coasts, Costa Rica is one of the most earthquake-prone and volcanically active countries in the world. Just off the west coast is the Middle America Trench, where a section of the seafloor called the Cocos Plate dives beneath Central America, generating powerful earthquakes and feeding a string of active volcanoes. This type of boundary between two converging plates of the Earth's crust is called a subduction zone--and such zones are notorious for generating the most powerful and destructive earthquakes.

The slow slip phenomenon was first observed at subduction zones where hundreds of GPS and seismic instruments are deployed: the Cascadia fault zone (off the coast of Washington and British Columbia) and Japan's Nankai Trough. At these and most other subduction zones, the part of the plate boundary where earthquakes originate, called the seismogenic zone, lies beneath the ocean. But in Costa Rica, the seismogenic zone runs right beneath the Nicoya Peninsula.

"It's a perfect opportunity to study the seismogenic zone using a network of land-based instruments," Schwartz said.

The 2007 slow slip event in Costa Rica involved movement along the fault equivalent to a magnitude 6.9 earthquake. But it took place over a period of 30 days rather than the 10 seconds typical for an earthquake of that size, and such slow motion does not radiate the seismic energy associated with normal earthquakes. The instruments did pick up seismic tremor, however, which Schwartz likened to a lot of very small earthquakes. Tremor activity is also associated with slow slip events in Japan and Cascadia, but there are some differences in Costa Rica, Schwartz said.

"Costa Rica has a different type of subduction zone from the well-studied ones in Japan and Cascadia," she said. "One thing that makes it interesting is that the temperature is much cooler at the depth range where slip occurs, and that is helping us work out the role of fluids in generating slow slip."

Ultimately, the goal of this research is not only a better understanding of subduction zones, but also better assessments of earthquake hazards. Schwartz said her Costa Rican colleagues have been working to educate the population of Nicoya about earthquakes and related hazards. With a growing population along the coast, the region faces a potential tsunami threat as well as the possibility of a major earthquake, she said.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of California - Santa Cruz. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

University of California - Santa Cruz. "New Monitoring Stations Detect 'Silent Earthquakes' In Costa Rica." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 19 February 2009. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/02/090215151609.htm>.
University of California - Santa Cruz. (2009, February 19). New Monitoring Stations Detect 'Silent Earthquakes' In Costa Rica. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 22, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/02/090215151609.htm
University of California - Santa Cruz. "New Monitoring Stations Detect 'Silent Earthquakes' In Costa Rica." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/02/090215151609.htm (accessed October 22, 2014).

Share This



More Earth & Climate News

Wednesday, October 22, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Traditional Farming Methods Gaining Ground in Mali

Traditional Farming Methods Gaining Ground in Mali

AFP (Oct. 20, 2014) He is leading a one man agricultural revolution in Mali - Oumar Diatabe uses traditional farming methods to get the most out of his land and is teaching others across the country how to do the same. Duration: 01:44 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
How Detroit's Money Woes Led To U.N.-Condemned Water Cutoffs

How Detroit's Money Woes Led To U.N.-Condemned Water Cutoffs

Newsy (Oct. 20, 2014) The United Nations says water is a human right, but should it be free? Detroit has cut off water to residents who can't pay, and the U.N. isn't happy. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Hey, Doc! Sewage, Beer and Food Scraps Can Power Chevrolet’s Bi-Fuel Impala

Hey, Doc! Sewage, Beer and Food Scraps Can Power Chevrolet’s Bi-Fuel Impala

3BL Media (Oct. 20, 2014) Hey, Doc! Sewage, Beer and Food Scraps Can Power Chevrolet’s Bi-fuel Impala Video provided by 3BL
Powered by NewsLook.com
White Rhino's Death In Kenya Means Just 6 Are Left

White Rhino's Death In Kenya Means Just 6 Are Left

Newsy (Oct. 20, 2014) Suni, a rare northern white rhino at Ol Pejeta Conservancy, died Friday. This, as many media have pointed out, leaves people fearing extinction. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Plants & Animals

Earth & Climate

Fossils & Ruins

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins