Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Hydrogen Protects Nuclear Fuel In Final Storage

Date:
April 23, 2009
Source:
Chalmers University of Technology
Summary:
When Sweden's spent nuclear fuel is to be permanently stored, it will be protected by three different barriers. Even if all three barriers are damaged, the nuclear fuel will not dissolve into the groundwater, according to new research.

In the Swedish method for final storage of nuclear fuel, the first barrier consist of a copper capsule, the second barrier of bentonite clay, and the third barrier of 500 meters of granite bedrock.
Credit: SKB/Jan M. Rojmar - Grafiska Illustrationer

By midsummer it will be announced where Sweden's spent nuclear fuel will be permanently stored. Ahead of the decision a debate is underway regarding how safe the method for final storage is, primarily in terms of the three barriers that are intended to keep radioactive material from leaking into the surrounding groundwater.

But according to the new doctoral dissertation, uranium would not be dissolved by the water even if all three barriers were compromised.

"This is a result of what we call the hydrogen effect," says Patrik Fors, who is defending his thesis in nuclear chemistry at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden. "The hydrogen effect was discovered in 2000. It's a powerful effect that was not factored in when plans for permanent storage began to be forged, and now I have shown that it's even more powerful than was previously thought."

The hydrogen effect is predicated on the existence of large amounts of iron in connection with the nuclear fuel. In the Swedish method for final storage, the first barrier consists of a copper capsule that is reinforced with iron. The second barrier is a buffer of bentonite clay, and the third is 500 meters of granite bedrock. Some other countries have chosen to make the first barrier entirely of iron.

It is known that microorganisms and fissure minerals in the rock will consume all the oxygen in the groundwater. If all three barriers were to be damaged, the iron in the capsule would therefore be anaerobically corroded by the water, producing large amounts of hydrogen. In final storage at a depth of 500 meters, a pressure of at least 5 megapascals of hydrogen would be created.

Patrik Fors has now created these conditions in the laboratory and examined three different types of spent nuclear fuel. All of the trials showed that the hydrogen protects the fuel from being dissolved in the water, even though the highly radioactive fuels create a corrosive environment in the water as a result of their radiation. The reason for the protective effect is that the hydrogen prevents the uranium from oxidizing and converting to liquid form.

Furthermore, the hydrogen makes the oxidized uranium that already exists as a liquid in the water shift to a solid state. The outcome was that the amount of uranium found dissolved in the water, after experiments lasting several years, was lower than the natural levels in Swedish groundwater.

"The hydrogen effect will prevent the dissolution of nuclear fuel until the fuel's radioactivity is so low that it need no longer be considered a hazard," says Patrik Fors. The amount of iron in the capsules is so great that it would produce sufficient hydrogen to protect the fuel for tens of thousands of years.

Patrik Fors carried out his experiments at the Institute for Transuranium Elements in Karlsruhe, Germany, in a joint project with Chalmers. The institute is operated by the European Commission. The research was also funded by SKB, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Chalmers University of Technology. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

Chalmers University of Technology. "Hydrogen Protects Nuclear Fuel In Final Storage." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 23 April 2009. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/04/090421080405.htm>.
Chalmers University of Technology. (2009, April 23). Hydrogen Protects Nuclear Fuel In Final Storage. ScienceDaily. Retrieved August 1, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/04/090421080405.htm
Chalmers University of Technology. "Hydrogen Protects Nuclear Fuel In Final Storage." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/04/090421080405.htm (accessed August 1, 2014).

Share This




More Matter & Energy News

Friday, August 1, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Britain Testing Driverless Cars on Roadways

Britain Testing Driverless Cars on Roadways

AP (July 30, 2014) British officials said on Wednesday that driverless cars will be tested on roads in as many as three cities in a trial program set to begin in January. Officials said the tests will last up to three years. (July 30) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
7 Ways to Use Toothpaste: Howdini Hacks

7 Ways to Use Toothpaste: Howdini Hacks

Howdini (July 30, 2014) Fresh breath and clean teeth are great, but have you ever thought, "my toothpaste could be doing more". Well, it can! Lots of things! Howdini has 7 new uses for this household staple. Video provided by Howdini
Powered by NewsLook.com
Amid Drought, UCLA Sees Only Water

Amid Drought, UCLA Sees Only Water

AP (July 30, 2014) A ruptured 93-year-old water main left the UCLA campus awash in 8 million gallons of water in the middle of California's worst drought in decades. (July 30) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Smartphone Powered Paper Plane Debuts at Airshow

Smartphone Powered Paper Plane Debuts at Airshow

AP (July 30, 2014) Smartphone powered paper airplane that was popular on crowdfunding website KickStarter makes its debut at Wisconsin airshow (July 30) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins