Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Mapping and sequencing of soybean genome paves the way for improved soybean crops

Date:
January 13, 2010
Source:
National Science Foundation
Summary:
Soybean, one of the most important global sources of protein and oil, is now the first major crop legume species with a published complete draft genome sequence. This sequence, which essentially provides a parts list of the soybean genome, will help scientists use the plant's genes to improve its characteristics.

Pods of soybean developing on plants in the field.
Credit: Photo by Stephen Ausmus / USDA Agricultural Research Service

Soybean, one of the most important global sources of protein and oil, is now the first major crop legume species with a published complete draft genome sequence. This sequence, which essentially provides a parts list of the soybean genome, will help scientists use the plant's genes to improve its characteristics.

Related Articles


The soybean sequencing study appears as the cover story of the January 13 edition of Nature.

Value of the new soybean sequence

Scientists will use the new sequence to identify which genes are responsible for particular plant characteristics, and then target specific genes to produce desired characteristics. These desired characteristics may include increases in the plant's oil content to promote the use of soybean oil as a biofuel; bigger crops; improved resistance to pests and diseases that currently claim large percentages of soybean crops; improvements in the digestibility of soybeans by animals and humans; and reductions in contaminants present in the manure of soybean-fed swine and poultry that may pollute farm runoff.

The research team plans to identify which soybean genes warrant targeting by:

  • Comparing the genomes of different varieties of soybean plants to one another.
  • Resequencing 20,000 soybean lines that are currently stored in the National Plant Germplasm System to identify desired variances of genes that are not currently captured by domesticated soybean lines.

"When soybeans were domesticated, they were selected for seed size and other traits, but there were a lot of potentially valuable genes left behind," said Scott Jackson of Purdue University--the corresponding author on the soybean genome paper. "There may be valuable genes associated with protein content or disease resistance in the stored lines that are not currently in the cultivated lines."

Having the new soybean sequence as a reference will significantly speed and reduce the costs of resequencing the 20,000 stored soybean lines.

A critical prerequisite to sequencing

The sequencing of the soybean genome was initiated by the production of a physical map of the soybean genome by a research team that was funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF). Production of this map was complicated by the complexities of the soybean genome. These complexities include duplicate copies of genes that account for 70 to 80 percent of the genome's 46,000 genes. These gene copies are scattered throughout the genome and so are particularly difficult to locate.

In addition, the soybean genome contains large numbers of transposable elements, also known as TEs. TEs are mobile DNA pieces that may impact gene expression, but are difficult to distinguish from genes.

The research team conquered the complexities of the soybean genome and produced the map of the soybean genome, which has a lower resolution than the sequence, as a critical prerequisite to the study's sequencing component. The map helped the researchers sequence the genome by enabling them to: 1) distinguish between TEs and genes during sequencing; and 2) break apart and then accurately reassemble the soybean genome as if it were a huge puzzle--as necessary to sequence the genome via the whole genome shotgun strategy.

A closely coordinated project

Because of the importance of the mapping project to the sequencing project, these two components of the study were closely coordinated. "The close coordination of support for this project," said Jane Silverthorne of NSF, "was facilitated by the National Plant Genome Initiative, which is managed by the Interagency Working group on Plant Genomes, whose members include DOE, USDA and NSF." Funding for the mapping/sequencing study was also provided by the United Soybean Board.

A complicated genome

Containing so many TEs and gene duplicates, the soybean genome is "the most complicated genome sequenced to date," said Jackson. And some of the same complexities that complicated the mapping and sequencing of the genome may also complicate the targeting of soybean genes. "If I'm selecting for a gene, I may have difficulty locating all of the necessary duplicates of that gene, explains Jackson. "It has a lot of backup copies."

Confident that such difficulties will be overcome, Silverthorne describes the new soybean sequence as "a valuable tool that will enable research towards a deeper understanding of the impacts of multiple genome copies on genome organization and function." Indeed, Jackson says that techniques developed to map and sequence the soybean genome are already being applied to other sequencing projects.

What's more, the results of the sequencing project have already provided grist for a second paper, which will appear in The Plant Cell on January 15, 2010. Jianxin Ma of Purdue University and a member of the sequencing team says that this second paper will explain how TEs thrive in the host genome: "We found that some 'dead' TEs can actually be revivified by swapping with their active TE partners, and thus restore or even enhance their ability to proliferate using the amplification machinery encoded by their partners. Although TEs are ubiquitous, what we discovered has not been seen in any other organisms yet."


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by National Science Foundation. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

National Science Foundation. "Mapping and sequencing of soybean genome paves the way for improved soybean crops." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 13 January 2010. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/01/100113172403.htm>.
National Science Foundation. (2010, January 13). Mapping and sequencing of soybean genome paves the way for improved soybean crops. ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 22, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/01/100113172403.htm
National Science Foundation. "Mapping and sequencing of soybean genome paves the way for improved soybean crops." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/01/100113172403.htm (accessed November 22, 2014).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Plants & Animals News

Saturday, November 22, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Could Your Genes Be The Reason You're Single?

Could Your Genes Be The Reason You're Single?

Newsy (Nov. 21, 2014) Researchers in Beijing discovered a gene called 5-HTA1, and carriers are reportedly 20 percent more likely to be single. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Raw: Baby Okapi Born at Houston Zoo

Raw: Baby Okapi Born at Houston Zoo

AP (Nov. 20, 2014) The Houston Zoo released video of a male baby okapi. Okapis, also known as the "forest giraffe", are native to the Democratic Republic of the Congo in Central Africa. Video is mute from source. (Nov. 20) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Your Complicated Job Might Keep Your Brain Young

Your Complicated Job Might Keep Your Brain Young

Newsy (Nov. 20, 2014) Researchers at the University of Edinburgh found the more complex your job is, the sharper your cognitive skills will likely be as you age. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Mysterious Glow Worms Found in the Amazon

Mysterious Glow Worms Found in the Amazon

Buzz60 (Nov. 20, 2014) Wildlife photographer Jeff Cremer teamed up with entomologist Aaron Pomerantz and others to investigate a predatory glow worm found in the Amazon. Patrick Jones (@Patrick_E_Jones) explains. Video provided by Buzz60
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Plants & Animals

Earth & Climate

Fossils & Ruins

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins