Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Bacterial balance keeps us healthy: Microbial genes in gut outnumber genes in human body

Date:
March 4, 2010
Source:
European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL)
Summary:
The thousands of bacteria, fungi and other microbes that live in our gut are essential contributors to our good health. They break down toxins, manufacture some vitamins and essential amino acids, and form a barrier against invaders. A new study shows that, at 3.3 million, microbial genes in our gut outnumber previous estimates for the whole of the human body.

This scanning electron micrograph (SEM) depicts a number of rod-shaped Escherichia coli bacteria -- one of the many species of microbes that live in the intestines of humans and animals.
Credit: CDC/Evangeline Sowers, Janice Carr

The thousands of bacteria, fungi and other microbes that live in our gut are essential contributors to our good health. They break down toxins, manufacture some vitamins and essential amino acids, and form a barrier against invaders. A study published in Nature shows that, at 3.3 million, microbial genes in our gut outnumber previous estimates for the whole of the human body.

Scientists at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) in Heidelberg, Germany, working within the European project MetaHIT and in collaboration with colleagues at the Beijing Genomics Institute at Shenzhen, China, established a reference gene set for the human gut microbiome -- a catalogue of the microbe genes present in the human gut. Their work proves that high-throughput techniques can be used to sequence environmental samples, and brings us closer to an understanding of how to maintain the microbial balance that keeps us healthy.

"Knowing which combination of genes is necessary for the right balance of microbes to thrive within our gut may allow us to use stool samples, which are non-invasive, as a measure of health," says Peer Bork, whose group at EMBL took part in the analysis. "One day, we may even be able to treat certain health problems simply by eating a yoghurt with the right bacteria in it."

This catalogue of the microbial genes harboured by the human gut will also be useful as a reference for future studies aiming to investigate the connections between bacterial genetic make-up and particular diseases or aspects of people's lifestyles, such as diet.

To gain a comprehensive picture of the microbial genes present in the human gut, Bork and colleagues turned to the emerging field of metagenomics, in which researchers take samples from the environment they wish to study and sequence all the genetic material contained therein. They were the first to employ a high-throughput method called Illumina sequencing to metagenomics, dispelling previous doubts over the feasibility of using this method for such studies.

From a bacterium's point of view, the human gut is not the best place to set up home, with low pH and little oxygen or light. Thus, bacteria have had to evolve means of surviving in this challenging environment, which this study now begins to unveil. The scientists identified the genes that each individual bacterium needs to survive in the human gut, as well as those that have to be present for the community to thrive, but not necessarily in all individuals, since if one species produces a necessary compound, others may not have to. This could explain another of the scientists' findings, namely that the gut microbiomes of individual humans are more similar than previously thought: there appears to be a common set of genes which are present in different humans, probably because they ensure that crucial functions are carried out. In the future, the scientists would like to investigate whether the same or different species of bacteria contribute those genes in different humans.

The research was conducted within the European project MetaHIT, coordinated by Dusko Ehrlich at the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, in France, with genetic sequencing carried out by Jun Wang's team at the Beijing Genomics Institute at Shenzhen, China.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL). Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Qin et al. A human gut microbial gene catalogue established by metagenomic sequencing. Nature, 2010; 464 (7285): 59 DOI: 10.1038/nature08821

Cite This Page:

European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL). "Bacterial balance keeps us healthy: Microbial genes in gut outnumber genes in human body." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 4 March 2010. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/03/100304075703.htm>.
European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL). (2010, March 4). Bacterial balance keeps us healthy: Microbial genes in gut outnumber genes in human body. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 29, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/03/100304075703.htm
European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL). "Bacterial balance keeps us healthy: Microbial genes in gut outnumber genes in human body." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/03/100304075703.htm (accessed July 29, 2014).

Share This




More Health & Medicine News

Tuesday, July 29, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Deadly Ebola Virus Threatens West Africa

Deadly Ebola Virus Threatens West Africa

AP (July 28, 2014) West African nations and international health organizations are working to contain the largest Ebola outbreak in history. It's one of the deadliest diseases known to man, but the CDC says it's unlikely to spread in the U.S. (July 28) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
$15B Deal on Vets' Health Care Reached

$15B Deal on Vets' Health Care Reached

AP (July 28, 2014) A bipartisan deal to improve veterans health care would authorize at least $15 billion in emergency spending to fix a veterans program scandalized by long patient wait times and falsified records. (July 28) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Two Americans Contract Ebola in Liberia

Two Americans Contract Ebola in Liberia

Reuters - US Online Video (July 28, 2014) Two American aid workers in Liberia test positive for Ebola while working to combat the deadliest outbreak of the virus ever. Linda So reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Traditional African Dishes Teach Healthy Eating

Traditional African Dishes Teach Healthy Eating

AP (July 28, 2014) Classes are being offered nationwide to encourage African Americans to learn about cooking fresh foods based on traditional African cuisine. The program is trying to combat obesity, heart disease and other ailments often linked to diet. (July 28) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins