Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

'Start/stop switch' for retroviruses found

Date:
April 10, 2010
Source:
University of British Columbia
Summary:
A researcher has discovered a previously unknown mechanism for silencing retroviruses, segments of genetic material that can lead to fatal mutations in a cell's DNA.

A University of British Columbia doctoral candidate has discovered a previously unknown mechanism for silencing retroviruses, segments of genetic material that can lead to fatal mutations in a cell's DNA.

Related Articles


The findings, published in the journal Nature, could lead to new cancer treatments that kill only tumour cells and leave healthy surrounding tissue unharmed.

Danny Leung, a 27-year-old graduate student in the laboratory of Asst. Prof. Matthew Lorincz in the Dept. of Medical Genetics, UBC Faculty of Medicine, found that a protein called ESET is crucial to preventing the activity of endogenous retroviruses in mouse embryonic stem cells. Distant relatives of such retroviruses are more active in the cells of testicular, breast and skin cancers in humans.

If ESET can be blocked, retroviruses would become dramatically more active, thus either killing the cancer cells hosting them or flagging them as targets for the immune system.

Leung, who was co-lead author with a graduate student at Kyoto University in Japan, has devoted his studies at UBC to the growing field of epigenetics -- changes to the genome that do not involve changes to the underlying genetic code. Such changes determine whether or not a gene is expressed.

The common method for silencing certain genes is DNA methylation, in which a chemical group attaches to the DNA structure. But Leung and his collaborators at UBC and Kyoto University found that the activity of ESET is far more potent than DNA methylation in silencing retroviruses in embryonic stem cells of mice. This indicates an independent parallel pathway of silencing the retroviruses.

Their research has direct bearing on cancer treatments because cancer cells are stem-like -- they can differentiate into other types of cells. Also, for unknown reasons, cancer cells have significantly less DNA methylation than normal cells. So blocking ESET holds the promise of affecting only cancer cells, allowing retroviruses to flourish to the detriment of their hosts. Normal, differentiated cells, which still have DNA methylation to keep retroviruses in check, would be unaffected.

"Inhibiting ESET may affect just the cancer cells, allowing further expression of retroviruses, which in turn would kill the cancer cells," says Leung, who is in his third year of graduate studies at UBC. His co-lead author on the paper, Toshiyuki Matsui, is a student in the lab of Yoichi Shinkai at Kyoto University.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of British Columbia. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Toshiyuki Matsui, Danny Leung, Hiroki Miyashita, Irina A. Maksakova, Hitoshi Miyachi, Hiroshi Kimura, Makoto Tachibana, Matthew C. Lorincz, Yoichi Shinkai. Proviral silencing in embryonic stem cells requires the histone methyltransferase ESET. Nature, 2010; 464 (7290): 927 DOI: 10.1038/nature08858

Cite This Page:

University of British Columbia. "'Start/stop switch' for retroviruses found." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 10 April 2010. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/04/100407211228.htm>.
University of British Columbia. (2010, April 10). 'Start/stop switch' for retroviruses found. ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 18, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/04/100407211228.htm
University of British Columbia. "'Start/stop switch' for retroviruses found." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/04/100407211228.htm (accessed December 18, 2014).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Health & Medicine News

Thursday, December 18, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Kids Die While Under Protective Services

Kids Die While Under Protective Services

AP (Dec. 18, 2014) As part of a six-month investigation of child maltreatment deaths, the AP found that hundreds of deaths from horrific abuse and neglect could have been prevented. AP's Haven Daley reports. (Dec. 18) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
UN: Up to One Million Facing Hunger in Ebola-Hit Countries

UN: Up to One Million Facing Hunger in Ebola-Hit Countries

AFP (Dec. 17, 2014) Border closures, quarantines and crop losses in West African nations battling the Ebola virus could lead to as many as one million people going hungry, UN food agencies said on Wednesday. Duration: 00:52 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
When You Lose Weight, This Is Where The Fat Goes

When You Lose Weight, This Is Where The Fat Goes

Newsy (Dec. 17, 2014) Can fat disappear into thin air? New research finds that during weight loss, over 80 percent of a person's fat molecules escape through the lungs. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Why Your Boss Should Let You Sleep In

Why Your Boss Should Let You Sleep In

Newsy (Dec. 17, 2014) According to research out of the University of Pennsylvania, waking up for work is the biggest factor that causes Americans to lose sleep. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins