Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

How the fly flies: Scientists discover gene switch responsible for flight muscle formation

Date:
November 21, 2011
Source:
Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry
Summary:
Flies are real flight artists, although they only have small wings compared to their body size. Scientists have recently identified the genetic switch that regulates the formation of flight muscles.

Flies are excellent flyers. However, without the gene spalt they stay on the ground and walk.
Credit: Copyright Frank Schnorrer/MPI of Biochemistry

Flies are real flight artists, although they only have small wings compared to their body size. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute (MPI) of Biochemistry in Martinsried near Munich, Germany, recently identified the genetic switch that regulates the formation of flight muscles.

"The gene spalt is essential for the generation of the ultrafast super muscles," emphasizes Frank Schnorrer, head of the research group "Muscle Dynamics." "Without spalt, the fly builds only normal leg muscles instead of flight muscles." The scientists' results have now been published in Nature.

In order to fly efficiently, flies have to flap their small wings very fast. This causes the familiar buzzing and humming of the small beasts. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster moves her wings at a frequency of 200 hertz -- that means its flight muscles contract and relax 200 times per second. "In contrast, a hundred meters sprinter who moves his legs only a few times per second moves like a snail," Frank Schnorrer describes. How can the fruit fly flap its wings at such a high frequency?

Muscles control all body movements, including the wing oscillations. However, flight muscles are unique. Their contractions are not only regulated by nerve impulses as usual, but additionally triggered by tension. Every fly has two categories of flight muscles which enable the wing oscillations: One type moves the wings down and, at the same time, stretches the other type which induces its contraction. Such, the wings are pulled up again and stable wing oscillations begin.

No spalt, you are flightless By means of targeted gene silencing in the fruit fly, scientists in the research group "Muscle Dynamics" at the MPI of Biochemistry have now identified the switch essential for the formation of flight muscles: Spalt. Transcription factors like Spalt play an important role for the correct transcription of the genetic information into RNA and proteins necessary in the respective cell type. Spalt only exists in flight muscles and is responsible for the specific architecture of their myofibrils. These components of muscle fibers alone enable the contraction of a muscle in response to the applied tension during the oscillations. Without Spalt, the flies survive, but are flightless. The flight muscles no longer react to tension and behave like normal leg muscles. Vice versa, the scientists succeeded in creating flight muscle-like muscles in the fly's legs by only inserting Spalt.

These results could be medically important. "Human body muscles do not have Spalt and are hardly regulated by tension," Frank Schnorrer explains. "But the human cardiac muscle builds Spalt and the tension inside the ventricle influences the heartbeat intensity. Whether Spalt plays a role in heartbeat regulation, is not yet known and remains to be investigated."


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Cornelia Schφnbauer, Jutta Distler, Nina Jδhrling, Martin Radolf, Hans-Ulrich Dodt, Manfred Frasch, Frank Schnorrer. Spalt mediates an evolutionarily conserved switch to fibrillar muscle fate in insects. Nature, 2011; 479 (7373): 406 DOI: 10.1038/nature10559

Cite This Page:

Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry. "How the fly flies: Scientists discover gene switch responsible for flight muscle formation." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 21 November 2011. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/11/111117081341.htm>.
Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry. (2011, November 21). How the fly flies: Scientists discover gene switch responsible for flight muscle formation. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 16, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/11/111117081341.htm
Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry. "How the fly flies: Scientists discover gene switch responsible for flight muscle formation." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/11/111117081341.htm (accessed September 16, 2014).

Share This



More Matter & Energy News

Tuesday, September 16, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Space Race Pits Bezos Vs Musk

Space Race Pits Bezos Vs Musk

Reuters - Business Video Online (Sep. 16, 2014) — Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos' startup will team up with Boeing and Lockheed to develop rocket engines as Elon Musk races to have his rockets certified. Fred Katayama reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
MIT's Robot Cheetah Unleashed — Can Now Run, Jump Freely

MIT's Robot Cheetah Unleashed — Can Now Run, Jump Freely

Newsy (Sep. 16, 2014) — MIT developed a robot modeled after a cheetah. It can run up to speeds of 10 mph, though researchers estimate it will eventually reach 30 mph. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Manufacturer Prints 3-D Car In Record Time

Manufacturer Prints 3-D Car In Record Time

Newsy (Sep. 15, 2014) — Automobile manufacturer Local Motors created a drivable electric car using a 3-D printer. Printing the body only took 44 hours. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Refurbished New York Subway Tunnel Unveiled After Sandy Damage

Refurbished New York Subway Tunnel Unveiled After Sandy Damage

Reuters - US Online Video (Sep. 15, 2014) — New York officials unveil subway tunnels that were refurbished after Superstorm Sandy. Nathan Frandino reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

    Environment News

      Technology News



      Save/Print:
      Share:  

      Free Subscriptions


      Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

      Get Social & Mobile


      Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

      Have Feedback?


      Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
      Mobile iPhone Android Web
      Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
      Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
      Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins