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Lichen can survive in space: Space station research sheds light on origin of life; potential for better sunscreens

Date:
June 23, 2012
Source:
European Space Agency
Summary:
You can freeze it, thaw it, vacuum dry it and expose it to radiation, but still life survives. Research on the International Space Station is giving credibility to theories that life came from outer space -- as well as helping to create better sunscreens.

Expose allows long exposures to space conditions and solar UV-radiation on the International Space Station. Several trays filled with organisms were installed on the outside of the European Columbus laboratory as one of the nine payloads of the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF). Further Expose units are continuing to study the effects of outer space on organisms and organic chemicals.
Credit: ESA

You can freeze it, thaw it, vacuum dry it and expose it to radiation, but still life survives. ESA's research on the International Space Station is giving credibility to theories that life came from outer space -- as well as helping to create better sunscreens.

In 2008 scientists sent the suitcase-sized Expose-E experiment package to the Space Station filled with organic compounds and living organisms to test their reaction to outer space.

When astronauts venture on a spacewalk, hours are spent preparing protective suits to survive the hostile conditions. No effort was made to protect the bacteria, seeds, lichen and algae attached to the outside of the Space Station, however.

"We are exploring the limits of life," explains ESA's René Demets.

Our atmosphere does a wonderful job of protecting life on Earth by absorbing harmful UV rays and keeping temperatures relatively stable.

In contrast, the space samples endured the full power of the Sun's rays. The samples were insulated somewhat by the Space Station but still had to cope with temperatures changing from -12ºC to +40ºC over 200 times as they orbited Earth.

The samples returned to Earth in 2009 and the results have now been published in a special issue of the journal Astrobiology.

Lichen have proven to be tough cookies -- back on Earth, some species continue to grow normally.

René explains, "These organisms go into a dormant state waiting for better conditions to arrive."

The lichen have attracted interest from cosmetic companies. They can survive the full power of the Sun for 18 months, so knowing more could lead to new ingredients for sunscreen.

Living organisms surviving in open space supports the idea of 'panspermia' -- life spreading from one planet to another, or even between solar systems.

It seems possible that organisms could colonize planets by hitching rides on asteroids. ESA is probing this intriguing theory further on future Station missions with different samples.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by European Space Agency. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Hervé Cottin, Yuan Yong Guan, Audrey Noblet, Olivier Poch, Kafila Saiagh, Mégane Cloix, Frédérique Macari, Murielle Jérome, Patrice Coll, François Raulin, Fabien Stalport, Cyril Szopa, Marylène Bertrand, Annie Chabin, Frances Westall, Didier Chaput, René Demets, André Brack. The PROCESS Experiment: An Astrochemistry Laboratory for Solid and Gaseous Organic Samples in Low-Earth Orbit. Astrobiology, 2012; 12 (5): 412 DOI: 10.1089/ast.2011.0773

Cite This Page:

European Space Agency. "Lichen can survive in space: Space station research sheds light on origin of life; potential for better sunscreens." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 23 June 2012. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/06/120623145623.htm>.
European Space Agency. (2012, June 23). Lichen can survive in space: Space station research sheds light on origin of life; potential for better sunscreens. ScienceDaily. Retrieved August 20, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/06/120623145623.htm
European Space Agency. "Lichen can survive in space: Space station research sheds light on origin of life; potential for better sunscreens." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/06/120623145623.htm (accessed August 20, 2014).

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