Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Key to life in the desert: What new research reveals about the importance of soil crusts

Date:
July 20, 2012
Source:
Soil Science Society of America (SSSA)
Summary:
Biological soil crust organisms found to play an active role in the development of soil structures and the allocation of water and nutrients.

Deserts creep outward in various directions across the western United States. The dry wind shuttles clouds of sand across the landscape, leading the charge to take over surrounding land, advancing the growing desertification problem.

The hope for restoring these arid environments and preventing further desertification may exist on the surface of the desert itself, according to new research by American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America Member Mandy Williams, a lab manager in the school of Life Science at the University of Nevada -- Las Vegas. She describes the complex blend of microorganisms carpeting arid environments as biological soil crusts (BSC). The organisms fuse with soil particles, stabilizing desert crusts and forming fragile peaks in the soil that influence a variety of processes to allocate important resources. Williams says, "These crusts kind of act like a living mulch across a desert, by protecting the surface from erosion. Once you disturb the soil surface, you're more likely to lose what little resources are available there."

Williams, along with two other UNLV researchers, performed an in-depth micromorphological investigation of BSC samples from the Mojave Desert to better understand the formation, structure, and significant role soil crusts play in arid environments. Their findings, being released in the September-October edition of Soil Science Society of America Journal, show complex internal soil structures suggesting a rich genetic history and a variety of formation processes.

The development of BSC begins with cyanobacteria, a phylum of photosynthetic bacteria. These bacteria form smooth crusts on the desert surface and strengthen soil structure by sealing off the surface to effects of erosion. Wet-dry cycles cause this newly formed soil crust to expand and contract, leaving cracks in the crust that trap dust as it blows over the desert surface. Yet, dust is an important source of nutrients in the Mojave Desert, where organic matter is lacking and much-needed nutrients must migrate to the desert from surrounding environments.

Meanwhile, cyanobacteria weave around particles in the soil, forming thick layers of fine grains by trapping sediments in a sticky casing. Over many years, these bacteria-soil mixtures grow into jagged micro-peaks that accrete more dust and continue to evolve. These peaks are extremely fragile and sensitive to physical impacts such as vehicles, foot traffic, and grazing. BSC also impacts water distribution in arid environments. In the Av soil horizon, fine dust particles settle and pockets of air form beneath the soil. These cavities trap water at the surface to be used by soil microbes and desert plants when it's needed most.

But this new research reveals, recovery of valuable BSC after a disturbance, can take years, depending on several environmental factors. Williams.says, "These crusts form important features that must be considered, not only for the restoration of crusts, but entire desert ecosystems in the future."


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Soil Science Society of America (SSSA). Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Amanda J. Williams, Brenda J. Buck and Mengesha A. Beyene. Biological Soil Crusts in the Mojave Desert, USA: Micromorphology and Pedogenesis. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 2012 (in press) DOI: 10.2136/sssaj2012.0021

Cite This Page:

Soil Science Society of America (SSSA). "Key to life in the desert: What new research reveals about the importance of soil crusts." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 20 July 2012. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/07/120720103401.htm>.
Soil Science Society of America (SSSA). (2012, July 20). Key to life in the desert: What new research reveals about the importance of soil crusts. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 23, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/07/120720103401.htm
Soil Science Society of America (SSSA). "Key to life in the desert: What new research reveals about the importance of soil crusts." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/07/120720103401.htm (accessed September 23, 2014).

Share This



More Plants & Animals News

Tuesday, September 23, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Cat Lovers Flock to Los Angeles

Cat Lovers Flock to Los Angeles

AFP (Sep. 22, 2014) The best funny internet cat videos are honoured at LA's Feline Film Festival. Duration: 00:56 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Washed-Up 'Alien Hairballs' Are Actually Algae

Washed-Up 'Alien Hairballs' Are Actually Algae

Newsy (Sep. 22, 2014) Green balls of algae washed up on Sydney, Australia's Dee Why Beach. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Raw: San Diego Zoo Welcomes Cheetah Cubs

Raw: San Diego Zoo Welcomes Cheetah Cubs

AP (Sep. 20, 2014) The San Diego Zoo has welcomed two Cheetah cubs to its Safari Park. The nearly three-week-old female cubs are being hand fed and are receiving around the clock care. (Sept. 20) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Chocolate Museum Opens in Brussels

Chocolate Museum Opens in Brussels

AFP (Sep. 19, 2014) Considered a "national heritage" in Belgium, chocolate now has a new museum in Brussels. In a former chocolate factory, visitors to the permanent exhibition spaces, workshops and tastings can discover derivatives of the cocoa bean. Duration: 01:00 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Plants & Animals

Earth & Climate

Fossils & Ruins

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins