Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Ancient trapped water explains Earth's first ice age

Date:
June 5, 2013
Source:
Manchester University
Summary:
Tiny bubbles of water found in quartz grains in Australia may hold the key to understanding what caused the Earth's first ice age, say scientists.

Pilbara region in Western Australia, where the samples came from.
Credit: mark senior / Fotolia

Tiny bubbles of water found in quartz grains in Australia may hold the key to understanding what caused Earth's first ice age, say scientists.

The Anglo-French study, published in the journal Nature, analysed the amount of ancient atmospheric argon gas (Ar) isotopes dissolved in the bubbles and found levels were very different to those in the air we breathe today.

The researchers say their findings help explain why Earth didn't suffer its first ice age until 2.5 billion years ago, despite the Sun's rays being weaker during the early years of our planet's formation.

"The water samples come from the Pilbara region in north-west Australia and were originally heated during an eruption of pillow basalt lavas, probably in a lake or lagoon environment," said author Dr Ray Burgess, from the University of Manchester's School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences.

"Evidence from the geological record indicates that the first major glaciations on Earth occurred about 2.5 billion years ago, and yet the energy of the Sun was 20 per cent weaker prior to, and during, this period, so all water on Earth should already have been frozen.

"This is something that has baffled scientists for years but our findings provide a possible explanation."

The study, done in collaboration with the CRPG-CNRS, University of Lorraine and the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, revealed that the ratio of two argon isotopes -- 40Ar, formed by the decay of potassium (40K) with a half-life of 1.25 billion years, and 36Ar -- was much lower than present-day levels. This finding can only be explained by the gradual release of 40Ar from rocks and magma into the atmosphere throughout Earth's history.

The team used the argon isotope ratio to estimate how the continents have grown over geological time and found that the volume of continental crust 3.5 billion years ago was already well-established being roughly half what it is today.

Dr Burgess said: "High levels of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide in the early atmosphere -- in the order of several percent -- which would have helped retain the Sun's heat, has been suggested as the reason why Earth did not freeze over sooner, but just how this level was reduced has been unexplained, until now.

"The continents are a key player in the Earth's carbon cycle because carbon dioxide in the atmosphere dissolves in water to form acid rain. The carbon dioxide removed from the atmosphere by this process is stabilised in carbonate rocks such as limestone and if a substantial volume of continental crust was established, as revealed by our study, then the acid weathering of this early crust would efficiently reduce the carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere to lower global temperatures and lead to the first major ice age.

He added: "The signs of the Earth's evolution in the distant past are extremely tenuous, only fragments of highly weathered and altered rocks exists from this time, and for the most part, the evidence is indirect. To find an actual sample of ancient atmospheric argon is remarkable and represents a breakthrough in understanding environmental conditions on Earth before life existed."


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Manchester University. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Magali Pujol, Bernard Marty, Ray Burgess, Grenville Turner, Pascal Philippot. Argon isotopic composition of Archaean atmosphere probes early Earth geodynamics. Nature, 2013; 498 (7452): 87 DOI: 10.1038/nature12152

Cite This Page:

Manchester University. "Ancient trapped water explains Earth's first ice age." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 5 June 2013. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/06/130605133510.htm>.
Manchester University. (2013, June 5). Ancient trapped water explains Earth's first ice age. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 22, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/06/130605133510.htm
Manchester University. "Ancient trapped water explains Earth's first ice age." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/06/130605133510.htm (accessed October 22, 2014).

Share This



More Earth & Climate News

Wednesday, October 22, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Traditional Farming Methods Gaining Ground in Mali

Traditional Farming Methods Gaining Ground in Mali

AFP (Oct. 20, 2014) He is leading a one man agricultural revolution in Mali - Oumar Diatabe uses traditional farming methods to get the most out of his land and is teaching others across the country how to do the same. Duration: 01:44 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
How Detroit's Money Woes Led To U.N.-Condemned Water Cutoffs

How Detroit's Money Woes Led To U.N.-Condemned Water Cutoffs

Newsy (Oct. 20, 2014) The United Nations says water is a human right, but should it be free? Detroit has cut off water to residents who can't pay, and the U.N. isn't happy. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Hey, Doc! Sewage, Beer and Food Scraps Can Power Chevrolet’s Bi-Fuel Impala

Hey, Doc! Sewage, Beer and Food Scraps Can Power Chevrolet’s Bi-Fuel Impala

3BL Media (Oct. 20, 2014) Hey, Doc! Sewage, Beer and Food Scraps Can Power Chevrolet’s Bi-fuel Impala Video provided by 3BL
Powered by NewsLook.com
White Rhino's Death In Kenya Means Just 6 Are Left

White Rhino's Death In Kenya Means Just 6 Are Left

Newsy (Oct. 20, 2014) Suni, a rare northern white rhino at Ol Pejeta Conservancy, died Friday. This, as many media have pointed out, leaves people fearing extinction. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Plants & Animals

Earth & Climate

Fossils & Ruins

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins