Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Evidence of super-fast deep earthquake: Rare high-speed rupture off Russia and similar phenomena on shallow fault zones

Date:
July 10, 2014
Source:
University of California - San Diego
Summary:
Scientists have discovered the first evidence that deep earthquakes, those breaking at more than 400 kilometers (250 miles) below Earth's surface, can rupture much faster than ordinary earthquakes. The finding gives seismologists new clues about the forces behind deep earthquakes as well as fast-breaking earthquakes that strike near the surface.

The supershear 2013 Sea of Okhotsk earthquake had similar magnitude and fault geometry as the damaging 1994 Northridge earthquake in California, but a much larger depth and faster rupture speed. The high rupture speed (approximately 8 kilometers per second, or 18,000 miles per hour) away from the hypocenter, shown as the red star, concentrates strong shaking on the "Mach front."
Credit: Image courtesy of University of California - San Diego

As scientists learn more about earthquakes that rupture at fault zones near the planet's surface -- and the mechanisms that trigger them -- an even more intriguing earthquake mystery lies deeper in the planet.

Scientists at Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego have discovered the first evidence that deep earthquakes, those breaking at more than 400 kilometers (250 miles) below Earth's surface, can rupture much faster than ordinary earthquakes. The finding gives seismologists new clues about the forces behind deep earthquakes as well as fast-breaking earthquakes that strike near the surface.

Seismologists have documented a handful of these events, in which an earthquake's rupture travels faster than the shear waves of seismic energy that it radiates. These "supershear" earthquakes have rupture speeds of four kilometers per second (an astonishing 9,000 miles per hour) or more.

In a National Science Foundation-funded study reported in the June 11, 2014, issue of the journal Science, Scripps geophysicists Zhongwen Zhan and Peter Shearer of Scripps, along with their colleagues at Caltech, discovered the first deep supershear earthquake while examining the aftershocks of a magnitude 8.3 earthquake on May 24, 2013, in the Sea of Okhotsk off the Russian mainland.

Details of a magnitude 6.7 aftershock of the event captured Zhan's attention. Analyzing data from the IRIS (Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology) consortium, which coordinates a global network of seismological instruments, Zhan noted that most seismometers around the world yielded similar records, all suggesting an anomalously short duration for a magnitude 6.7 earthquake.

Data from one seismometer, however, stationed closest to the event in Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, told a different story with intriguing details.

After closely analyzing the data, Zhan not only found that the aftershock ruptured extremely deeply at 640 kilometers (400 miles) below Earth's surface, but its rupture velocity was extraordinary -- about eight kilometers per second (five miles per second), nearly 50 percent faster than the shear wave velocity at that depth.

"For a 6.7 earthquake you would expect a duration of seven to eight seconds, but this one lasted just two seconds," said Shearer, a geophysics professor in the Cecil H. and Ida M. Green Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP) at Scripps. "This is the first definitive example of supershear rupture for a deep earthquake since previously supershear ruptures have been documented only for shallow earthquakes."

"This finding will help us understand why deep earthquakes happen," said Zhan. "One quarter of earthquakes occur at large depths, and some of these can be pretty big, but we still don't understand why they happen. So this earthquake provides a new observation for deep earthquakes and high-rupture speeds."

Zhan also believes the new information will be useful in examining ultra-fast earthquakes and their potential for impacting fault zones near Earth's surface. Although not of supershear caliber, California's destructive 1994 Northridge earthquake had a comparable size and geometry to that of the 6.7 Sea of Okhotsk aftershock.

"If a shallow earthquake such as Northridge goes supershear, it could cause even more shaking and possibly more damage," said Zhan.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of California - San Diego. The original article was written by Mario Aguilera. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Zhongwen Zhan, Donald V. Helmberger, Hiroo Kanamori, Peter M. Shearer. Supershear rupture in a Mw 6.7 aftershock of the 2013 Sea of Okhotsk earthquake. Science, 2014 DOI: 10.1126/science.1252717

Cite This Page:

University of California - San Diego. "Evidence of super-fast deep earthquake: Rare high-speed rupture off Russia and similar phenomena on shallow fault zones." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 10 July 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/07/140710141626.htm>.
University of California - San Diego. (2014, July 10). Evidence of super-fast deep earthquake: Rare high-speed rupture off Russia and similar phenomena on shallow fault zones. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 22, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/07/140710141626.htm
University of California - San Diego. "Evidence of super-fast deep earthquake: Rare high-speed rupture off Russia and similar phenomena on shallow fault zones." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/07/140710141626.htm (accessed July 22, 2014).

Share This




More Earth & Climate News

Tuesday, July 22, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

New Orleans Plans to Recycle Cigarette Butts

New Orleans Plans to Recycle Cigarette Butts

AP (July 21, 2014) New Orleans is the first U.S. city to participate in a large-scale recycling effort for cigarette butts. The city is rolling out dozens of containers for smokers to use when they discard their butts. (July 21) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Shark Sightings a Big Catch for Cape Tourism

Shark Sightings a Big Catch for Cape Tourism

AP (July 21, 2014) A rise in shark sightings along the shores of Chatham, Massachusetts is driving a surge of eager vacationers to the beach town looking to catch a glimpse of a great white. (July 21) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Spectacular Lightning Storm Hits London

Spectacular Lightning Storm Hits London

AFP (July 19, 2014) A spectaCular lightning storm struck the UK overnight Friday. Images of lightning strikes over the Shard and Tower Bridge in central London. Duration: 00:23 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
A Centuries' Old British Tradition Is Far from a Swan Song

A Centuries' Old British Tradition Is Far from a Swan Song

AFP (July 19, 2014) As if it weren't enough that the Queen is the Sovereign of the UK and 15 other Commonwealth realms, she is also the owner of all Britain's unmarked swans. Duration: 02:18 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins