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Mellow In Europe, Crazy In America: Study Shows New Way That Benign Plants Become Invasive

March 3, 2007
University of Vermont
Reed canarygrass stays put in Europe where it's native, but is aggressively expanding into wetlands across North America. Using this grass as a model, University of Vermont researchers have revealed a new way that some plants become invasive: Multiple introductions of the same species from numerous regions lead to new strains which grow more aggressively than the original plants. With climate change, this kind of invader may become increasingly successful.

Studying reed canarygrass, University of Vermont professor Jane Molofsky and her post-doctoral associate, Sebastien Lavergne, discovered a way that some formerly mild-mannered plants become "genetic superstars"--and then invade new terrain. (Credit: University of Vermont)
Credit: University of Vermont

Reed canarygrass is a bit like some people on vacation. At home, they stay on their side of the fence, and speak nicely with the neighbors. But jet them into Las Vegas and by week’s end they are shoving other people out of the way in the casino.

Similarly, the reed canarygrass is well-settled in its native European range, not pushing out other species or expanding its terrain. But strains introduced into the United States are running amok ecologically, choking out native plants in wetlands—including in Vermont. Once praised as a fine forage crop, the grass is now considered an invasive pest in at least three states and its range is growing.

Studying this grass as a model, Jane Molofsky, associate professor of plant biology at the University of Vermont and her post-doctoral associate, Sebastien Lavergne, have discovered a novel mechanism to explain the surprising conversion of some plant species from quiet neighbor at home into expansive bully in new territory.

As they report in a forthcoming edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences the invasive power of this grass, brought to America in the mid-19th century and many times thereafter comes not from any one individual plant, but from this history of multiple introductions from different regions of Europe.

Their article is available online in the PNAS “Early Edition,” and will be published March 6, 2007, in the journal’s print edition.

Over decades, US farmers and others have planted the grass as livestock feed, for erosion control, and for wastewater treatment—with plants taken from places as far apart as France, the Czech Republic and Finland.

These multiple introductions, and subsequent interbreeding, create a kind of biological stacked deck: drawing on genetic variety from across the European continent, new strains have emerged in the US with higher genetic diversity and more potentially advantageous qualities than their species brethren across the Atlantic.

“It’s not that you’re taking the ones in France and moving them to the US and they’re suddenly invasive,” Molofsky said, looking over a green swath of reed canarygrass growing in a UVM greenhouse, “its that you move some plants, and then you move some from somewhere else and they recombine here to form something better, genetic superstars.”

The result: in America, reed canarygrass has developed traits, like faster emergence in the spring and larger root biomass, that allow it to become a rapid colonizer. In short, the grass is still the same species, but it has quickly evolved to be invasive.

And this has significance far beyond the headache of reed canarygrass. A noteworthy “implication of our paper is that not only do invasive species evolve but we show that they can evolve extremely rapidly,” notes Sebastian Lavergne, now at the University of Grenoble in France, striking a blow at the conventional view that evolution occurs at very slow rates.

In Vermont, the state invasive exotic species committee has placed the grass on its watchlist. “It shows the potential to be invasive in our climate zone,” says Rose Paul, director of science and stewardship for the Vermont chapter of the Nature Conservancy. “It’s not a plant that is banned for sale or transfer,”—yet, she says, but “we’re watching it.”

Reed canarygrass has been listed as invasive in Connecticut, banned in Massachusetts and designated a noxious weed by the state of Washington. New Hampshire also has the plant on a watch list.

“If you drive around in Vermont you’ll see that it has taken over whole areas of wetlands, and out West it clogs waterways and takes over irrigation ditches,” says Molofsky. “It’s a big problem in Alaska: it’s preventing salmon runs, its changing habitats. It’s becoming a larger and larger problem.”

Molofsky’s greenhouse- and field-based study, funded by the US Department of Agriculture, shows why. Thanks to a large network of European collaborators, she and her students collected plants from both the center and edge of the native range in Europe, getting individuals from southern France and the Czech Republic. They also collected from the invasive range center in Vermont and the edge in North Carolina.

They discovered that the grass in its native Europe show a typical decrease of genetic diversity at the edge of the range, constraining its ability to adapt and expand into new conditions. But in the US invasive range, they found a different story. There, the invasive plants thrive on infusions of Europe-wide genetic material, allowing them to quickly adapt to new conditions and continue their quiet march into new fields and wetlands.

“The problem is that these invasive species at the range margin are maintaining most of the genetic diversity which represents a substrate for future evolution,” Molofsky says, “so when climates begin to change we expect that some individuals from those populations will be able to grow in new conditions. But it is unlikely that native species have maintained enough genetic variability to move with rapid climate changes.” Invaders persist, natives expire.

For land managers, farmers, nursery owners and others the implications of this study are also weighty. It seems likely that a considerable number of horticultural and agricultural plants that currently seem benign could become invasive by the same mechanism that affected reed canarygrass, and that climate change will increase the intensity of this problem.

“If people had stopped introducing the grass, we might not have this problem now,” Molofsky said, “but it seemed fine then.”

Other plants may soon follow this path. “Some in the nursery industry argue, ‘well, we can have barberry here, because it’s not invasive in Vermont,’ My point is, ‘yes, not now, but keep introducing it and let it mix and with climate change we’ll have it later,’” Molofsky says. “Just keep planting it out there, and 20 years from now when it’s 2 degrees warmer you’re going to see it in the forest.”

“Some people are thinking of species as static, like they can’t evolve,” she says. Her study shows otherwise.

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University of Vermont. "Mellow In Europe, Crazy In America: Study Shows New Way That Benign Plants Become Invasive." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 3 March 2007. <>.
University of Vermont. (2007, March 3). Mellow In Europe, Crazy In America: Study Shows New Way That Benign Plants Become Invasive. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 26, 2017 from
University of Vermont. "Mellow In Europe, Crazy In America: Study Shows New Way That Benign Plants Become Invasive." ScienceDaily. (accessed May 26, 2017).