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Too much aluminum in infant formulas, UK researchers find

September 2, 2010
Keele University
The aluminum content of a range of the most popular brands of infant formulas remains high, researchers in the UK have found.

The aluminum content of a range of the most popular brands of infant formulas remains high, and particularly so for a product designed for preterm infants and a soya-based product designed for infants with cow's milk intolerances and allergies, researchers have found.

A study by a team at Keele University in Staffordshire, led by Dr Chris Exley with Shelle-Ann M Burrell, demonstrating the vulnerability of infants to early exposure to aluminum serves to highlight an urgent need to reduce the aluminum content of infant formulas to as-low-a-level as is practically possible. The research has been published in the journal BMC Pediatrics.

Infant formulas are integral to the nutritional requirements of preterm and term infants. While it has been known for decades that infant formulas are contaminated with significant amounts of aluminum there is little evidence that manufacturers consider this to be a health issue. Aluminum is non-essential and is linked to human disease. There is evidence of both immediate and delayed toxicity in infants, and especially preterm infants, exposed to aluminum and the team contends that there is still too much aluminum in infant formulas.

There has been a long and significant history documenting the contamination of infant formulas by aluminum and consequent health effects in children. Through these and other publications manufacturers of infant formulas have been made fully aware of the potentially compounded issue of both the contamination by aluminum and the heightened vulnerability, from the point of view of a newborn's developing physiology, of infants fed such formulas.

There have been similar warnings over several decades in relation to aluminum toxicity and parenteral nutrition of preterm and term infants. To these ends the expectation would be that the aluminum content of current infant formulas would at the very least be historically low and at best would be as low as might be achieved for a processed product. The team tested this premise and found that the aluminum content of a range of branded infant formulas remains too high.

The researchers chose 15 different branded infant formula products. These included powdered and ready-made liquid formulas based on cow's milk and a soya-based product. The categories of formulas included those for preterm babies, stage one (0-6 months) and stage two (6 months plus) infants. All products were stored according to the manufacturer's instructions. Products were sampled directly from their packaging to avoid extraneous contamination. Ready-made liquid products were shaken between each sampling.

In general, the aluminum content of formulas prepared from powdered milks were significantly higher than ready-made milks.

Commercially available branded infant formulas used by literally millions of parents to feed children of up to 12 months-plus of age are still significantly contaminated with aluminum. The concentrations of aluminum in the milk formulas varied from ca 200 -- 700 μg/L and would result in the ingestion of up to 600 μg of aluminum per day.

The concentrations of aluminum in infant formulas are up to 40 times higher than are present in breast milk. These concentrations are all several times higher than are allowed in drinking water. They are clearly too high for human consumption and certainly too high for consumption by such a vulnerable group as pre-term and term infants.

The suggestion is that these products are 'contaminated' with aluminum as each of the manufacturers insist that aluminum is not knowingly added to their products.

The sources of such contamination are myriad though would probably include equipment used in both processing and storing of bulk products. In addition many of the formulas were packaged for sale using aluminum-based materials. The high content of aluminum in the soya-based formula probably reflects its prior accumulation in the soybean plant and the known aluminum tolerance of some soybean cultivars that are grown on acid soils.

While it is the case that the present levels of aluminum in infant formulas have not been shown to cause adverse effects in healthy infants, it is also the case that there have not been any clinical studies which refute such as a possibility. Previous research has highlighted the potential toxicity of aluminum in infants with confounding disorders (including, prematurity, poor renal function and gastrointestinal disease) and fed infant formulas and these studies when viewed alongside aluminum's known connections with medicine and human disease should at least deter complacency concerning this issue. It is widely accepted that the not fully developed physiologies of infant's gastrointestinal tract, kidneys and blood-brain barrier may predispose them to aluminum toxicity and while there are no definitive links between aluminum exposure through infant formulas and immediate or delayed toxicity in healthy infants this neither should not nor does not preclude such as a possibility.

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Materials provided by Keele University. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:

  1. Shelle-Ann M Burrell, Christopher Exley. There is (still) too much aluminium in infant formulas. BMC Pediatrics, 2010; 10 (1): 63 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-10-63

Cite This Page:

Keele University. "Too much aluminum in infant formulas, UK researchers find." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 2 September 2010. <>.
Keele University. (2010, September 2). Too much aluminum in infant formulas, UK researchers find. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 30, 2017 from
Keele University. "Too much aluminum in infant formulas, UK researchers find." ScienceDaily. (accessed April 30, 2017).