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Inflammation in middle age may be tied to brain shrinkage decades later

Date:
November 1, 2017
Source:
American Academy of Neurology
Summary:
People who have biomarkers tied to inflammation in their blood in their 40s and 50s may have more brain shrinkage decades later than people without the biomarkers, according to a study. The brain cell loss was found especially in areas of the brain that are affected by Alzheimer's disease.
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People who have biomarkers tied to inflammation in their blood in their 40s and 50s may have more brain shrinkage decades later than people without the biomarkers, according to a study published in the November 1, 2017, online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology. The brain cell loss was found especially in areas of the brain that are affected by Alzheimer's disease.

"These results suggest that inflammation in mid-life may be an early contributor to the brain changes that are associated with Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia," said study author Keenan Walker, PhD, of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, Md. "Because the processes that lead to brain cell loss begin decades before people start showing any symptoms, it is vital that we figure out how these processes that happen in middle age affect people many years later."

People with the inflammation markers and brain shrinkage also had lower scores on average on a memory test.

For the study, researchers tested the levels of five markers of inflammation in the blood, including the white blood cell count, in 1,633 people with an average age of 53. An average of 24 years later, the participants took a memory test and had brain scans to measure the volume of several areas of the brain.

The participants were divided into three groups based on how many elevated levels of inflammation they had among the five biomarkers.

Compared to the people with no elevated levels, people with elevated levels on three or more biomarkers had on average 5 percent lower volume in the hippocampus and other areas of the brain associated with Alzheimer's disease.

Walker said that the effect of one standard deviation increase in the overall inflammation score in mid-life on brain volume decades later was similar to the effect associated with having one copy of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) e4 gene that increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease.

Every standard deviation increase in the inflammation score was also associated with a hippocampus volume that was 110 cubic millimeters smaller and the volume of other areas affected by Alzheimer's disease was 532 cubic millimeters smaller.

On the memory test, where people were asked to remember a list of 10 words, the people with no elevated markers remembered an average of about 5.5 words, while those with three or more elevated markers remembered an average of about five words.

Limitations of the study include that the biomarkers were measured only once. Walker said it's not clear whether a single measurement can adequately determine that people have chronic inflammation.


Story Source:

Materials provided by American Academy of Neurology. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Keenan A. Walker, Ron C. Hoogeveen, Aaron R. Folsom, Christie M. Ballantyne, David S. Knopman, B. Gwen Windham, Clifford R. Jack, Rebecca F. Gottesman. Midlife systemic inflammatory markers are associated with late-life brain volume. Neurology, 2017; 10.1212/WNL.0000000000004688 DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000004688

Cite This Page:

American Academy of Neurology. "Inflammation in middle age may be tied to brain shrinkage decades later." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 1 November 2017. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/11/171101160810.htm>.
American Academy of Neurology. (2017, November 1). Inflammation in middle age may be tied to brain shrinkage decades later. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 12, 2024 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/11/171101160810.htm
American Academy of Neurology. "Inflammation in middle age may be tied to brain shrinkage decades later." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/11/171101160810.htm (accessed April 12, 2024).

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