New! Sign up for our free email newsletter.
Science News
from research organizations

Magnetic microcoils unlock targeted single-neuron therapies for neurodegenerative disorders

MagPatch array features single-neuron precision for advanced cochlear implants and vagus nerve stimulation in the future

Date:
April 23, 2024
Source:
American Institute of Physics
Summary:
Researchers deploy an array of microscopic coils to create a magnetic field and stimulate individual neurons. The magnetic field can induce an electric field in any nearby neurons, the same effect created by an electrode but much more precise. They used an array of eight coils, which combined can induce electric fields using much less current per coil, and employed soft magnetic materials, which boost the magnetic strength of the coils. The researchers constructed a prototype of their coil array, called MagPatch, and encapsulated it within a biocompatible coating.
Share:
FULL STORY

Researchers deploy an array of microscopic coils to create a magnetic field and stimulate individual neurons. The magnetic field can induce an electric field in any nearby neurons, the same effect created by an electrode but much more precise. They used an array of eight coils, which combined can induce electric fields using much less current per coil, and employed soft magnetic materials, which boost the magnetic strength of the coils. The researchers constructed a prototype of their coil array, called MagPatch, and encapsulated it within a biocompatible coating.

Neural stimulation is a medical technique used to treat many illnesses affecting the nervous system. It involves applying energy to neurons to encourage them to grow and make connections with their neighbors. Treatments for epilepsy can often include neural stimulation, and similar treatments exist for Parkinson's disease, chronic pain, and some psychiatric illnesses.

In the Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A, by AIP Publishing, researchers from the University of Minnesota deployed an array of microscopic coils -- microcoils -- to create a magnetic field and stimulate individual neurons.

Existing devices are effective, but lack the necessary precision needed for some applications, such as cochlear implants or vagus nerve stimulators.

"There are several neurostimulation devices on the market -- some are already FDA-approved for patient trials, some are pending approval," said author Renata Saha. "But each of them has one caveat -- they stimulate a large population of neurons, including neighboring cells that are not supposed to be stimulated. The medical device industry is in search of a device or technique that can stimulate neurons at a single-cell resolution."

Instead of using an electrode, Saha and her team turned to magnetic coils of wire. Over two centuries ago, physicist Michael Faraday described how electric current running through a coil of wire can create a magnetic field. This magnetic field can then induce an electric field in any nearby neurons -- the same effect created by an electrode but much more precise. However, this technique comes with a major downside.

"To achieve the desired threshold of electric field capable of stimulating neurons, the amount of current these microcoils need to drive is extremely high," said Saha. "It is almost three times the amount of current that needs to drive an electrode to achieve the same threshold."

To solve this problem, the team made two improvements. First, rather than a single microcoil, they used an array of eight coils, which combined can induce electric fields using much less current per coil. The authors made further improvement to these microcoil arrays by employing soft magnetic materials, which boost the magnetic strength of the coils.

"Adding these soft magnetic materials at the core of the microcoils increases the electric field without the need to increase the current through the microcoils," said Saha.

The researchers constructed a prototype of their coil array, called MagPatch, and encapsulated it within a biocompatible coating. They then tested it with human neuroblastoma cells to demonstrate its effectiveness. The cells were affected by the magnetic fields without being harmed by the coating, suggesting the potential to use this device in clinical settings.

The authors plan to continue developing and testing the MagPatch device to ensure its safety and utility. They hope it helps to improve the next generation of cochlear implants.


Story Source:

Materials provided by American Institute of Physics. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Renata Saha, Onri J. Benally, Sadegh Faramarzi, Robert Bloom, Kai Wu, Denis Tonini, Maple Shiao, Susan A. Keirstead, Walter C. Low, Theoden I. Netoff, Jian-Ping Wang. Planar microcoil arrays for in vitro cellular-level micromagnetic activation of neurons. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, 2024; 42 (3) DOI: 10.1116/6.0003362

Cite This Page:

American Institute of Physics. "Magnetic microcoils unlock targeted single-neuron therapies for neurodegenerative disorders." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 23 April 2024. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2024/04/240423113133.htm>.
American Institute of Physics. (2024, April 23). Magnetic microcoils unlock targeted single-neuron therapies for neurodegenerative disorders. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 24, 2024 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2024/04/240423113133.htm
American Institute of Physics. "Magnetic microcoils unlock targeted single-neuron therapies for neurodegenerative disorders." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2024/04/240423113133.htm (accessed May 24, 2024).

Explore More

from ScienceDaily

RELATED STORIES