Conflict resolution or conflictology is the process of attempting to resolve a dispute or a conflict.
Successful conflict resolution occurs by listening to and providing opportunities to meet each side's needs, and adequately address their interests so that they are each satisfied with the outcome.
Conflict resolution aims to end conflicts before they start or lead to verbal, physical, or legal fighting.
More common but not popular with practitioners in conflict resolution is conflict management, where Conflict is a deliberate personal, social and organizational tool, especially used by capable politicians and other social engineers.
Conflict resolution usually involves two or more groups with opposing views regarding specific issues, and another group or individual who is considered to be neutral in their opinion on the subject.
This last bit though is quite often not entirely demanded if the "outside" group is well respected by all opposing parties.
Resolution methods can include conciliation, mediation, arbitration or litigation.
These methods all require third party intervention.
A resolution method which is direct between the parties with opposing views is negotiation.
Negotiation can be the 'traditional' model of hard bargaining where the interests of a group far outweigh the working relationships concerned.
The 'principled' negotiation model is where both the interests and the working relationships concerned are viewed as important.